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2019年3月新闻热词汇总

中国日报网 2019-04-01 09:00

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3月,全国两会召开,外商投资法提交大会审议并通过;习近平主席出访意大利、摩纳哥和法国;海南宣布在2030年全面禁售燃油车;中央宣布2019年为“基层减负年”;国家移民管理局宣布中华人民共和国普通护照、往来港澳通行证、往来台湾通行证等出入境证件实行“全国通办”;苹果春季发布会推出一系列应用服务产品;国家网信办指导短视频平台试点“青少年模式”,推进防沉迷系统建设。


两会 two sessions

今年全国两会期间,习近平主席六次下团组强调了这几件事。

关键词:文化自信 cultural confidence
时间:3月4日
地点:看望全国政协十三届二次会议的文化艺术界、社会科学界委员

“习”语回顾:
Writers, artists and theorists should strengthen cultural confidence, serve the people with fine works, and guide the public with high moral standards.
文学家、艺术家、理论家要坚定文化自信、以精品奉献人民、用明德引领风尚。

A country, or a nation, cannot be devoid of soul. The mission of workers in culture, literature, art and philosophy and social sciences is to nurture the root and soul of the nation.
一个国家、一个民族不能没有灵魂。文化文艺工作、哲学社会科学工作就属于培根铸魂的工作。

Cultural, literary and artistic workers should participate in practices, carefully observe people's lives and express people's aspirations.
文化文艺工作者要走进实践深处,观照人民生活,表达人民心声。

The people should be provided with quality products, all valuable and meaningful literary and artistic works and academic research should reflect reality and be conducive to solving real problems and answering real questions.
要坚持以精品奉献人民。一切有价值、有意义的文艺创作和学术研究,都应该反映现实,都应该有利于解决现实问题、回答现实课题。

All practitioners in culture, literature, art, philosophy and social sciences shoulder the important tasks of enlightening thoughts, nurturing sentiments and warming hearts. They should set an example for society with lofty aspirations, good morals and noble sentiments.
文化文艺工作者、哲学社会科学工作者都肩负着启迪思想、陶冶情操、温润心灵的重要职责,大家理应以高远志向、良好品德、高尚情操为社会作出表率。


关键词:生态文明 ecological civilization
时间:3月5日
地点:十三届全国人大二次会议内蒙古代表团

“习”语回顾:
Building Inner Mongolia into an important shield for ecological security in northern China is a strategic position set with full consideration of the country's overall development and a major responsibility the region must shoulder.
把内蒙古建成我国北方重要生态安全屏障,是立足全国发展大局确立的战略定位,也是内蒙古必须自觉担负起的重大责任。

Fundamentally speaking, environmental protection and economic development are closely integrated and complement each other.
保护生态环境和发展经济从根本上讲是有机统一、相辅相成的。

In the Chinese economy's transition from the phase of rapid growth to a stage of high-quality development, pollution control and environmental governance are two major tasks that must be accomplished.
在我国经济由高速增长阶段转向高质量发展阶段过程中,污染防治和环境治理是需要跨越的一道重要关口。

The country should explore a new path of high-quality development that prioritizes ecology and highlights green development.
要探索以生态优先、绿色发展为导向的高质量发展新路子。


关键词:脱贫攻坚 fight against poverty
时间:3月7日
地点:十三届全国人大二次会议甘肃代表团

“习”语回顾:
We need perseverance in the fight against poverty as there are only two years left for the country to meet its goal of eradicating extreme poverty by 2020. There should be no retreat until a complete victory is won.
现在距离2020年完成脱贫攻坚目标任务只有两年时间,正是最吃劲的时候,必须坚持不懈做好工作,不获全胜、决不收兵。

The practices of formalities for formalities' sake and bureaucratism hamper the effective advancement of poverty reduction. We should keep a firm hand in rectifying malpractices in poverty relief.
要整治问题不手软。脱贫攻坚工作中存在的形式主义、官僚主义现象,影响脱贫攻坚有效推进。

More efforts are needed to redress undesirable conduct of officials in a timely manner, as well as special campaigns to target corruption and bad conduct in poverty reduction.
要及时纠正脱贫攻坚中反映的干部作风问题,深化扶贫领域腐败和作风问题专项治理。


关键词:乡村振兴战略 rural revitalization strategy
时间:3月8日
地点:十三届全国人大二次会议河南代表团

“习”语回顾:
Efforts should be made to promote the supply-side structural reform in the agricultural sector to achieve food security while building a modern and efficient agriculture.
要推进农业供给侧结构性改革。实现粮食安全和现代高效农业相统一。

Measures should be taken to promote two-way flow and equal exchange of factors, including human resources, lands and capital, between urban and rural areas.
推动人才、土地、资本等要素在城乡间双向流动和平等交换。

Implementation of the rural revitalization strategy and seeking progress in work related with agriculture, rural areas and farmers should be taken into consideration and promoted in the overall economic and social development.
要把实施乡村振兴战略、做好“三农”工作放在经济社会发展全局中统筹谋划和推进。


关键词:创新发展 innovative development
时间:3月10日
地点:十三届全国人大二次会议福建代表团

“习”语回顾:
China should seek momentum from reform and opening up, unleash to the maximum the whole society's power for innovation, entrepreneurship and creativity, and keep improving the country's influence and competitiveness in a world that is undergoing profound changes.
要向改革开放要动力,最大限度释放全社会创新创业创造动能,不断增强我国在世界大变局中的影响力、竞争力。

We should create favorable conditions for the development of small and medium-sized enterprises and young people, and establish an acceleration mechanism for high-tech companies.
要为中小企业、年轻人发展提供有利条件,为高技术企业成长建立加速机制。
The government should help private companies achieve innovative development and build up a team of entrepreneurs with a pioneering spirit, forward-looking vision and global insight with respect to market competition.
帮助民营企业实现创新发展,在市场竞争中打造一支有开拓精神、前瞻眼光、国际视野的企业家队伍。

Fujian must leverage the combined strengths of the special economic zone, pilot free trade zone, comprehensive experimental zone and the core zone of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, and keep exploring new approaches.
福建要发挥经济特区、自由贸易试验区、综合实验区、21世纪海上丝绸之路核心区等多区叠加优势,不断探索新路。

The two sides of the Taiwan Strait should enhance economic and trade cooperation, infrastructure connectivity, energy and resource exchanges, and shared industry standards.
两岸要应通尽通,提升经贸合作畅通、基础设施联通、能源资源互通、行业标准共通。


关键词:军队建设 military development
时间:3月12日
地点:十三届全国人大二次会议解放军和武警部队代表团

“习”语回顾:
The entire armed forces must clearly understand the importance and urgency of implementing the 13th Five-Year Plan for military development, firm up their resolve, intensify the sense of mission, forge ahead with a pioneering spirit, and go all out to carry out the plan so as to ensure that the set targets and tasks are fulfilled as scheduled.
全军要认清落实“十三五”规划的重要性和紧迫性,坚定决心意志,强化使命担当,锐意开拓进取,全力以赴打好规划落实攻坚战,确保如期完成既定目标任务。

The whole army should adhere to the guidance of the thought on socialism with Chinese characteristics for a new era, fully implement the Party's thinking on strengthening the military for the new era and the military strategy for new conditions, concentrate on war preparedness, and intensify reform and innovation.
全军要坚持以新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,深入贯彻新时代党的强军思想,深入贯彻新时代军事战略方针,聚力备战打仗,强化改革创新。

Focusing on the overall layout of the plan, the military should give prominence to key projects including urgent necessities for military preparedness, crucial support for combat systems, and coordinated projects for the reform of national defense and armed forces.
要围绕规划明确的总体布局,突出抓好军事斗争准备急需、作战体系关键支撑、国防和军队改革配套等重点项目。

The formulation of the 14th Five-Year Plan for military development should serve the demands of the national development, security and military strategies, and should take into account both the actual condition and long-term development needs.
军队建设“十四五”规划论证编制工作,要适应国家发展战略、安全战略、军事战略要求,统筹当前建设实际和长远发展需要。

 

外商投资法 foreign investment law

The foreign investment law, once adopted, will become a new and fundamental law for China's foreign investment, says the explanation delivered by Wang Chen, vice chairman of the NPC Standing Committee, to deputies attending an NPC plenary session.
全国人大常委会副委员长王晨在关于中华人民共和国外商投资法草案的说明指出,外商投资法通过后,将成为我国外商投资领域新的基础性法律。

关于外商投资的界定,草案做了如下界定,

外商投资(foreign investment)即外国的自然人、企业或者其他组织直接或者间接在中国境内进行的投资活动(investment activities directly or indirectly conducted by foreign natural persons, enterprises and other organizations),包括以下四类具体情形:

一是外国投资者单独或者与其他投资者共同在中国境内设立外商投资企业(a foreign investor establishes a foreign-funded enterprise independently or together with any other investor);

二是外国投资者取得中国境内企业的股份、股权、财产份额或者其他类似权益(a foreign investor acquires shares, equities, property shares or any other similar rights and interests of an enterprise within the territory of China);

三是外国投资者单独或者与其他投资者共同在中国境内投资新建项目(a foreign investor invests in any new construction project independently or together with any other investor);

四是法律、行政法规或者国务院规定的其他方式的投资(investments stipulated in laws, administrative regulations, or defined by the State Council)。

草案指出,

The foreign investment law is a comprehensive and fundamental set of legal standards for foreign investment activities in China under new circumstances, and shall play a leading role as an overarching law in this field.
外商投资法是新形势下国家关于外商投资活动全面的、基本的法律规范,是外商投资领域起龙头作用、具有统领性质的法律。

It is a full testament to China's determination and confidence in opening wider to the outside world and promoting foreign investment in the new era.
制定外商投资法,就是要在新的历史条件下通过国家立法表明将改革开放进行到底的决心和意志,展现新时代中国积极的对外开放姿态。

草案分为6章,包括总则、投资促进、投资保护、投资管理、法律责任、附则,共41条,对新的外商投资法律制度作出了基本的、明确的规定。

以下是部分要点摘录:

The state shall guarantee that foreign-invested enterprises are able to participate in standard-setting work on an equal footing in accordance with law, and mandatory state standards shall apply equally to them, according to the document.
国家保障外商投资企业依法平等参与标准制定工作,国家制定的强制性标准平等适用于外商投资企业。

The state shall guarantee that foreign-invested enterprises can take part in government procurement activities through fair competition in accordance with law, and government procurement shall afford, in accordance with law, equal treatment to products of foreign-invested enterprises produced in China, it says.
国家保障外商投资企业依法通过公平竞争参与政府采购活动。政府采购依法对外商投资企业在中国境内生产的产品平等对待。

The conditions for technological cooperation in an investment project shall be negotiated in a fair and equal manner and agreed upon by all parties to the investment, and government bodies and their employees shall be prohibited from using administrative measures to force technology transfer.
外商投资过程中技术合作的条件由投资各方遵循公平原则平等协商确定,行政机关及其工作人员不得利用行政手段强制转让技术。

Sectors not on the entry negative list for foreign investment will be managed in accordance with the principle of equal treatment for domestic and foreign capital.
外商投资准入负面清单以外的领域,按照内外资一致的原则实施管理。

Competent authorities shall review foreign investors' license applications with the same conditions and procedures as those for domestic investors, unless otherwise stipulated in other laws or administrative regulations, according to the document.
有关主管部门应当按照与内资一致的条件和程序,审核外国投资者的许可申请,法律、行政法规另有规定的除外。

The draft also makes it clear that the state shall manage foreign investment according to the system of pre-establishment national treatment plus a negative list.
国家对外商投资实行准入前国民待遇加负面清单管理制度。

【名词解释】

准入前国民待遇(pre-establishment national treatment),是指在投资准入阶段给予外国投资者及其投资不低于本国投资者及其投资的待遇。

负面清单(negative list),是指国家规定在特定领域对外商投资实施的准入特别管理措施。

外商投资法草案审议通过并正式实施之后,《中华人民共和国中外合资经营企业法》、《中华人民共和国外资企业法》、《中华人民共和国中外合作经营企业法》将同时废止。


现代化都市圈 modern metropolitan area

The National Development and Reform Commission recently issued guidelines on cultivating and developing modern metropolitan areas, with the aim of building mature modern metropolitan areas with international influence by 2035.
国家发改委近日发布《关于培育发展现代化都市圈的指导意见》,明确目标为,到2035年,现代化都市圈格局更加成熟,形成若干具有全球影响力的都市圈。

 

城市群(city cluster)是新型城镇化主体形态(a main part of the new type of urbanization),是支撑全国经济增长、促进区域协调发展、参与国际竞争合作的重要平台(the important platform for supporting national economic growth, promoting regional coordinated development and participating in international competition and cooperation)。

都市圈(metropolitan area)是城市群内部以超大特大城市或辐射带动功能强的大城市为中心、以1小时通勤圈为基本范围的城镇化空间形态(the urban spatial form comprising a one-hour commuting circle centered on a megacity within a city cluster)。

《意见》认为,都市圈既能优化人口和经济格局(optimize population and economic landscape),又有利于激活有效投资和潜在消费需求(boost effective investment and potential consumption demand),增强内生动力。

《意见》明确,在有条件地区编制都市圈轨道交通规划(rail transportation plan in metropolitan areas),推动干线铁路、城际铁路、市域(郊)铁路、城市轨道交通“四网融合”(an integrated network of mainline railways, intercity railways, urban/suburban railways and urban railway transit projects)。

此外,《意见》还支持毗邻城市(镇)开行城际公交,加快推动近郊班线公交化,并要求加快推进都市圈内城市间公交一卡互通(one pass for all public transport services in metropolitan areas)、票制资费标准一致(unified ticket policies for public transport services)。

《意见》在促进人口要素向都市圈流动方面也提出了举措,明确要放开放宽除个别超大城市外的城市落户限制(relax restrictions on household registration in non-megacities)。

《意见》要求促进优质公共资源共享(encourage sharing of quality public resources),支持有条件的中小学和三级医院推进集团化办学办医,支持中心城市三级医院异地设置分支机构。

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