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2019年4月新闻热词汇总

中国日报网 2019-05-01 09:10

4月的大事可不少:第二届“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛举行;2019年北京世界园艺博览会开幕;庆祝海军成立70周年海上阅兵举行;五四运动100周年纪念大会举行;四川凉山地区发生森林火灾;斯里兰卡发生连环爆炸;奔驰女车主哭诉维权事件刷屏;日本明仁天皇退位;《复联4》刷新多项票房纪录......

 

 


深中通道 Shenzhen-Zhongshan Bridge

The construction of the Shenzhen-Zhongshan Bridge started on Dec 29, 2016, and it is expected to come into operation in 2024. The 24-kilometer engineering feat will consist of a series of bridges, islands and tunnels. It will build the world's first eight-lane tunnel under the sea, and its maximum designed speed is 100 km/h.
深中通道于2016年12月29日开工建设,计划2024年全线通车。通道全长24公里,是一个“隧、岛、桥”集群工程,其8车道、时速100公里海底沉管隧道将开创世界先例。

 

深中通道(Shenzhen-Zhongshan Bridge)是国家“十三五”重大工程和《珠三角规划纲要》确定建设的重大交通基础设施项目(major transportation infrastructure construction project),是粤东通往粤西乃至大西南的便捷通道。建成通车以后,珠江东西两岸的通行时间将由2小时缩短为半小时。

和港珠澳大桥类似的是,深中通道也要途经伶仃洋,也是通过“东西人工岛”进行连接,同样要采用沉管技术(immersed tube methodology)。深中通道沉管隧道(immersed tube tunnel)工程比港珠澳大桥沉管隧道还长1.2公里,宽两车道。

受航运和空运等条件限制,深中通道设计采用了“东隧西桥”的设计方案,即在通道东侧采用隧道方式穿越通行(an immersed tunnel in the east section),西侧采用桥梁通行(a bridge in the west section)。

中交一航局S09标段副总工程师杨润来介绍,目前隧道正着手“海底接吻”(the connection of a tunnel end on an island with the first immersed tube,岛上现浇隧道与首节沉管对接)前的施工准备工作。

杨润来表示:

Yang said the immersed tunnel used the steel shell tube, the first of its kind in China, and there were many other new structures and technologies, which brought lots of challenges, such as lack of technical standards in the country.
深中通道海底隧道工程结构是钢壳沉管隧道,为国内首次采用。还有很多新工艺、新技术,国内缺乏相应设计标准,工程建设极具挑战性。”

沉管隧道首节管节钢壳(the first steel shell tube of immersed tube tunnel)目前正在制造加工,预计上半年完成制造。按照计划,后续将运输至桂山岛预制场完成管节预制,我国研制的世界第一艘且唯一一艘沉管运输安装一体船(the world's first and only ship for immersed tube transportation and installation)将于今年下半年进行联调联试,为今年底首节沉管安放做好准备。


年号 era name

The reign of Japan’s next emperor will be known as the Reiwa era, after the new imperial name was unveiled before an expectant nation on Monday morning.
4月1日上午,在全国民众的期盼中,日本下一任天皇的年号正式公布,为“令和”。

The new era will begin on May 1, a day after the emperor, Akihito – whose era is known as Heisei (achieving peace) – makes way for his eldest son, Crown Prince Naruhito, in Japan’s first imperial abdication for more than 200 years.
日本现任明仁天皇,年号“平成”,将在4月30日退位,皇太子德仁将于5月1日即位新天皇,当日零时开始正式启用新年号。这也是200多年以来日本天皇首次退位变更。

 

日本官房长官菅义伟透露,新年号的出处是日本古籍《万叶集(Manyoshu)》中的诗句“初春令月,气淑风和”,《万叶集》是现存最古老的日本诗歌总集(the oldest existing compilation of Japanese poetry)。

这也是日本年号首次取自日本典籍,之前的年号汉字均选自中国典籍。比如,当前正在使用的“平成(Heisei)”年号来自中国《史记》“内平外成”及《尚书》“地平天成”之说,此前的“昭和”则来自于《尚书》中“百姓昭明,协和万邦”之语。

日本政府于当地时间4月1日上午9点半起在首相官邸召开关于年号的专家恳谈会(panel discussion),就新年号原案征求意见。为了防止泄密,内阁成员在参与决定前必须交出手机和移动设备,并一直留在决策室中,直到正式宣布为止。一旦有候选年号被泄露给媒体,则立即失去候选资格(any names leaked to the media ahead of the announcement would immediately be withdrawn)。

对于年号的选择,日本首相安倍晋三表示,这个词代表日本丰富的国民文化和悠久的传统(our nation’s profound public culture and long tradition)。

他说:

Just like amazing plum flowers in full bloom that signal the arrival of spring after bitter cold, each and every Japanese person can hope for the future and make their own flowers blossom.
就像美丽的梅花绽放象征着寒冬之后春天的到来,每一个日本民众也可以期待未来,让他们自己的花绽放。

Our nation is facing up to a big turning point, but there are lots of Japanese values that shouldn’t fade away. We are very proud of our history, culture and tradition, and this term expresses the Japan of tomorrow, the one we want to build for future generations. That was the most decisive point in making the choice.
我们国家正在面临一个巨大的转折点,但很多日本的价值观不该淡化。我们为我们的历史、文化和传统感到自豪,而这个词表达的是日本的明天,是我们想要为子孙后代建设的日本。这就是我们做出这个选择的决定性因素。

日本官房长官表示,不会公布新年号的提供者姓名(the identity of the expert who suggested the new gengo),也不会公布其他候选年号(the other candidate names)。

Era names, or "gengo" as they are known in Japanese, are used in Japan for the length of an emperor's reign.
日本的年号用于天皇在位期间。

The new era name is usually announced after the accession of the new monarch, but the government decided to announce the new name in advance of the accession of the new Emperor.
新年号一般会在新天皇继位之后宣布,不过这一次政府决定在新天皇继位之前宣布新年号。

In this way companies and the general public have time to prepare for the change and disruption is kept to a minimum.
这样,企业和民众有时间提前准备,将各种可能的混乱影响降至最低。

 

森林火灾 forest fire

Thirty people were confirmed killed while fighting a forest fire that broke out on Saturday in the Liangshan Yi autonomous prefecture, Sichuan province, the Ministry of Emergency Management said in a statement on Monday.
4月1日,应急管理部发布消息称,3月30日四川省凉山彝族自治州境内发生森林火灾,已有30人在扑火行动中死亡。

By 6:30 pm on Monday, the bodies of the victims were all recovered, including 27 firefighters and three locals, said the ministry.
应急管理部称,4月1日18点30分, 所有遇难者遗体均已找到,包括27名消防队员和3名当地群众。

截至1日17时,木里森林火灾过火面积已达到15公顷左右(the fire has burned around 15 hectares of forest),火势尚未得到控制,扑灭存在较大困难。

 

据四川省应急管理厅副厅长周彤介绍,据初步掌握的情况,目前主要的扑救难点在于:

一是火场最高海拔约3700米,海拔高(high altitude),风大且方向不定,火势难控制;

二是木里当地地形复杂(complex terrain),尤其是雅砻江沿岸一带山高坡陡,很多地方没有路(lack of road access),给灭火和搜救工作带来很大困难;

三是当地森林腐殖层较厚(thick humus layer),火不易打熄;

四是山上取水非常困难(difficulty in getting water)。

根据专家初步分析,此次火灾很可能是由雷电引发的(the fire was possibly caused by thunder),在燃烧过程中可能还发生了“轰燃(flashover)”现象,其突发性导致部分灭火人员避难不及时。“轰燃”指在一限定空间内, 所有可燃物表面全部卷入燃烧的瞬变状态。


自主招生 independent enrollment

Many of China's top universities, including Tsinghua University and Peking University, will start annual independent enrollment tests in the next two months.
未来两个月,包括清华大学和北京大学在内的许多中国顶尖大学将开始一年一度的自主招生考试。

The test, initiated in 2003, is a part of China's educational reforms, giving conditional offers to students who exhibit talents or achievements in specific fields so that they may enter the university with lower admission scores.
作为中国教育改革的一部分,自主招生始于2003年,其目的是对在特定领域表现出天赋或成就的学生给予有条件的录取,使他们可以以较低的录取分数进入大学。

Earlier this month, the brochures handed out by many top universities have triggered backlash online – people noticed that a few top universities canceled tests for the liberal arts this year.
本月早些时候,许多顶尖大学发放的招生简章在网上引发了强烈反响——人们注意到,一些顶尖大学取消了今年的文科考试。

以清华为例,在其3月28号发布的自主招生简章中,人文与社会类、法学类等2018年自主招生中出现的文科专业都被取消了。

Meanwhile, Shandong University has canceled tests for philosophy, Chinese literature and history, while math, information technology and engineering remain.
同时,山东大学也取消了哲学、中文和历史的自招考试,而数学、信息技术和工程学等仍然保留。

Many argue that those who have achievements and talents in literature and the social sciences will no longer be allowed to take part in the independent tests.
许多人认为,那些在文学和社会科学方面有成就和天赋的人将丧失参与自主招生的机会。

Netizens are saying that such actions constitute discrimination against liberal arts students. Many have expressed pessimism over the future of liberal arts students。
网友们表示,这样的行为是对文科学生的歧视,许多人对文科学生的未来表示悲观。

清华大学招生办负责人接受新京报记者采访时表示,清华大学自主招生的目标是选拔具备基础学科和特色学科方向特长及创新潜质的学生,符合条件的文科、理科考生均可申请,清华大学自主招生取消文科专业属于误读。

ven though liberal arts subjects are not included, students are still qualified to apply for the tests. As the Tsinghua recruitment brochure states, subjects such as economics, finance and architecture are open to both liberal arts and science students.
即使文科科目不包括在自主招生考试内,文科学生仍然有资格申请参加考试。如清华大学招生简章所述,经济、金融和建筑等专业对文科和理科学生都开放。

Peking University, however, are holding tests for science subjects such as astronomy, computer science and biology, as well as liberal arts subjects such as history, Chinese literature, international relations and archaeology.
不过,北京大学将对天文学、计算机科学和生物学等理科科目及历史学、中文、国际关系和考古学等文科科目进行自招考试。

For those who want to join the media industry, the Communication University of China will also recruit students in journalism and publishing in the independent recruitment tests.
对于那些想进入传媒行业的学生来说,中国传媒大学依然将在自主招生考试中招收新闻出版专业的学生。


森林火灾红色预警 red alert for forest fire

China issued a red alert, the highest level, for forest fire risks in arid northern and southwestern regions. Beijing, Tianjin, and the provinces of Hebei, Shanxi and Sichuan, will see the risk of forest fires stay at the highest level until Monday, and "under the red alert, no open fires are allowed in forests and grasslands", Yang Xiaodan, chief forecaster of the National Meteorological Center's Public Information Center, said on Tuesday.
我国对干旱的北方和西南地区发布最高级别的森林火险红色预警。中国气象局公共气象服务中心副首席杨晓丹表示,一直到4月8日,北京、天津、河北、山西、四川等地森林火险等级将维持在极度危险级别,“红色预警的发布意味着在林区、牧区都应禁止一切用火”。

一般来说发生在野外的火灾在英语里统称为wildfire(野火),根据燃烧植被的种类又可以具体分为brush fire(灌木丛火灾), bushfire(丛林火灾), desert fire(沙漠火灾), forest fire(森林火灾), grass fire(草地火灾), hill fire(山火)等。

依据气象因子变化(meteorological factor change)、森林可燃物变化(change of combustible forest materials)以及引发森林火灾火源发生状态(the state of forest fire sources),森林火险预警等级(forest fire risk level)由低到高划分为三个预警级别,并依次采用黄色、橙色和红色来加以表示。

上一次我国发布森林火险红色预警是在2016年3月。

The alert was issued based on comprehensive considerations, including the persistent dry weather, strong winds and high temperatures, and also the coming Tomb Sweeping Day when thousands will travel to ancestors' grave sites and in some cases, burn offerings.
此次红色预警是在综合考虑了持续干旱天气、大风天多、气温偏高的因素,以及清明节期间数千人会出门扫墓,有些还会焚烧祭品等情况的基础上发布的。

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