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2019年7月新闻热词汇总

中国日报网 2019-08-01 09:40

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汛期 flooding season

Since the flooding season began in June, southern provinces have received seven rounds of heavy downpours with average precipitation of about 476 mm, up 51 percent compared to the same period in previous years, according to the National Meteorological Center.
6月进入汛期以来,我国南方省份已经历七轮强降雨,平均降雨量约476毫米,比常年同期多51%。

【单词讲解】

在英文报道中,讲到“降雨”时通常会出现rain、drizzle、downpour、shower等词汇。其中,rain是“雨”的总称,我们通过在这个词的前面添加不同的形容词来表示不同程度的降雨,比如:heavy rain(大雨)、light rain(小雨)、中雨(moderate rain)、暴雨(torrential rain)、大暴雨(downpour)、特大暴雨(heavy downpour)。


中央气象台表示,未来一周南方地区还将连续出现两次强降雨过程。

For the next five days, there will be two more rounds of heavy rain in South China, especially in Hubei, Hunan, Anhui, Jiangxi and Zhejiang provinces, with an accumulated precipitation of 100 to 200 millimeters.
未来五天,南方还将有两轮强降雨,尤其是湖北、湖南、安徽、江西及浙江,累积降水量可达100到200毫米。

应急管理部表示,自进入6月份防汛关键期以来,截至7月11日,共有1991万人次受灾,129.8万人次紧急安置,58.2万人次需紧急生活救助。


Firemen and rescue workers transfer people trapped in floodwaters in Yichun, East China's Jiangxi province, on July 9, 2019. [Photo by Xu Tao/For chinadaily.com.cn]

水利部7月11日发布洪水黄色预警,提醒10省(自治区)和社会公众注意防范。


Following the recent heavy rainfall, two heavy floods occurred in the upper reaches of the Yellow River, and the current flow in the Lanzhou section of the main stream has exceeded the warning level.
受近期强降雨影响,黄河上游发生2次编号洪水,目前干流兰州段流量超过警戒流量。

【单词讲解】

在水文学上,支流(tributary)指汇入另一条河流(或其他水体)而不直接入海的河流。支流所汇入的河流称为干流或主流(mainstream),两河或多河交汇之处称为合流或合流处(confluence)。与支流相反的情况称为分流(distributary)。


The Xijiang River in the Pearl River basin saw the first flood this year.
珠江流域西江发生2019年第1号洪水。

Floods exceeding alarms occurred in rivers around Dongting Lake and Poyang Lake in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.
长江中下游洞庭湖及鄱阳湖部分水系发生超警以上洪水。

The section from Jiujiang to Poyang Lake in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River will exceed the alarm level Friday, which will be the first time for the water level in the main stream of the Yangtze River to exceed the alarm level in this year's flood season, according to the ministry.
预计12日长江中游干流九江至鄱阳湖湖口江段将超过警戒水位,这将是今年长江干流首次超过警戒水位。

The ministry's yellow alert for floods targets Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Guangxi, Guangdong, Jiangxi, Hunan, Anhui and Jiangsu.
水利部发布洪水黄色预警,提醒青海、甘肃、宁夏、内蒙古、广西、广东、江西、湖南、安徽、江苏等有关省(自治区)注意防范。


放开落户限制 relaxing residency curbs

China has introduced a slew of measures to boost the employment prospects of graduates in the country, including relaxing residency curbs, promoting multi-channel employment and facilitating the establishment of startups.
我国公布了一系列措施促进毕业生就业,包括放开落户限制、促进多渠道就业以及为创业提供便利等。

这项通知从积极拓宽就业领域、大力加强就业服务和全力做好兜底保障等方面提出了多项促进大学生就业创业的优惠政策。

 

省会及以下城市放开落户限制、精简落户凭证

Residency curbs on the settlement of college graduates, vocational college graduates, and graduates from overseas institutions will be fully relaxed at provincial capitals and other cities. The household registration process for graduates will be further simplified.
省会及以下城市要全面放开对高校毕业生、职业院校毕业生、留学归国人员的落户限制,精简落户凭证,简化办理手续。


小微企业吸纳毕业生可享受社保补贴

Personnel in grassroots service projects who have passed the assessment of the grassroots units below the county level in remote areas can be selected and hired in the township institutions.
对艰苦边远地区县以下基层单位服务期满并考核合格的基层服务项目人员,可通过直接考察的方式择优聘用到服务地乡镇事业单位。

Small and micro enterprises that hire people who have been unemployed for two years after college graduation will be provided with social insurance subsidies, according to the regulation.
对小微企业吸纳离校2年内未就业高校毕业生就业的,按规定给予社会保险补贴。


返乡创业还有补贴

The country will strengthen innovation and entrepreneurship, relax the conditions for applying for start-up loans, and encourage graduates to return to their hometowns to start their own businesses.
加强创新创业教育,放宽创业担保贷款申请条件,支持高校毕业生返乡入乡创业创新。


扩大就业见习规模

The country will help arrange internship placements for college graduates and unemployed young people who need internship opportunities. Other subsidies will cover qualified graduates in secondary vocational schools, technical schools included.
及时摸排锁定有见习需求的高校毕业生和失业青年,帮助他们获得岗位实践机会。将求职创业补贴对象范围扩大到中等职业学校(含技工院校)的困难毕业生。


夜间经济 nighttime economy

近日,经北京市政府同意,由北京市商务局印发《北京市关于进一步繁荣夜间经济促进消费增长的措施》,推出十三项具体举措。

The nighttime economy refers to business activities between 6 pm and 6 am in the service sector. Many other Chinese cities, including Shanghai and Tianjin, have introduced plans to boost their nighttime economy.
所谓“夜间经济”一般指从当日下午6点到次日凌晨6点所发生的服务业方面的商务活动。上海、天津等地均已出台措施发展夜间经济。

 

By the end of 2021, a bunch of nighttime landmarks, business districts and living areas will be set up throughout the capital, which is expected to be featured as part of a world-renowned "Night Capital" consumer brand.
到2021年底,北京市将形成一批夜间地标、商圈和生活圈,打造具有全球知名度的“夜京城”消费品牌。

首批4个“夜京城”地标(nighttime landmarks)分别为前门和大栅栏、三里屯、国贸、五棵松。

首批“夜京城”商圈(nighttime business districts)位于蓝色港湾、世贸天阶、簋街、合生汇、郎园、食宝街、荟聚、中粮·祥云小镇、奥林匹克公园等。

首批“夜京城”生活圈(nighttime living areas)在上地、五道口、常营、方庄、鲁谷、梨园、永顺、回龙观、天通苑等区域。

Late-night canteens along major subway lines will be further developed, and the 24-hour convenience stores, bookstores and movie theaters in the capital's urban and rural districts will be expanded to spur the nighttime economy.
在主要地铁线路沿线进一步发展深夜食堂特色餐饮,在城郊各区推广24小时便利店、书店、影剧院,进一步刺激夜间经济。

除了在“夜京城”地标、商圈等区域组织开展夜间主题活动外,北京市还将策划组织一批戏曲、相声、电影、歌剧、音乐、读书等主题鲜明的“夜京城”文化休闲活动。

Some scenic spots in the capital will extend their opening times by one to two hours, according to the plan. A series of nighttime performances will also be carried out in famous tourist attractions, such as the Summer Palace, the Temple of Heaven and the Olympic Forest Park.
北京部分景点将延长开放时间一到两个小时,在颐和园、天坛公园、奥林匹克森林公园等地也将组织夜间游览活动项目。

Beijing will extend operations of metro line 1 and line 2 for an extra one hour and 1.5 hours respectively, with the last trains departing after 12:30 am, according to the plan.
北京地铁1号线延长运营1小时,2号线延长运营1.5小时,两条线路的末班车发车时间均在零点30分以后。


校外线上培训机构 online after-school training institutions

China will carry out a comprehensive inspection on all online after-school training institutions and set up records on the institutions, their training content and teacher credentials by the end of this year as part of its oversight of the rapidly expanding industry, the Ministry of Education said on Monday.
教育部表示,要对快速发展的校外线上培训进行监管,2019年12月底前完成对全国校外线上培训及机构的全面排查,对培训机构及其培训内容和师资情况进行备案。


《实施意见》要点包括:

培训内容不得超出相应的国家课程标准

Online training providers shall not offer courses beyond the official syllabus for elementary and secondary schools, while the courses shall remain proportionate to students' grades and individual competence, according to the guidelines.
学科类课程培训内容不得超出相应的国家课程标准,须与招生对象所处年级相匹配、与学生个体能力相适应。

To enable verification, the training content and data are asked to be kept for at least one year, while the livestreaming courses should be kept for no less than six months.
培训内容和培训数据信息须留存1年以上,其中直播教学的影像须留存至少6个月。


合理设置课程培训时长

The duration of each online training session shall not exceed 40 minutes and the interval between two sessions should not be less than 10 minutes.
每节课持续时间不得超过40分钟,课程间隔不少于10分钟。

In addition, it requires live broadcast lessons for mainland students in compulsory education to be completed no later than 9 pm.
面向境内义务教育阶段学生的直播类培训活动结束时间不得晚于21:00。


师资合格

Teachers employed by online educational institutions should not be in-service teachers from primary and secondary schools but must hold corresponding teachers' qualifications, according to the guidelines.
不得聘用中小学在职教师,从事学科知识培训的人员应当具有国家规定的相应教师资格。

Foreign teachers recruited by the after-school training institutions should comply with relevant national regulations, it says, adding that institutions must publicize information on their foreign teachers, including names, photos, teaching credentials, learning, work and teaching experience as well as teachers' qualifications.
聘用外籍人员须符合国家有关规定。要在培训平台和课程界面的显著位置公示培训人员姓名、照片和教师资格证等信息,公示外籍培训人员的学习、工作和教学经历。


不得收取超3个月费用

Online training institutions should not charge fees for more than three months or 60 classes ahead of training, and training fees should not be used for other investment, the guideline said.
按课时收费的,每科不得一次性收取超过60课时的费用;按培训周期收费的,不得一次性收取时间跨度超过3个月的费用。收取的培训费用不得用于其他投资。

 

经排查发现问题的校外线上培训机构应当按整改意见进行整改(rectify their problems),于2020年6月底前完成整改并重新提交相关材料。

省级教育行政部门要联合网信、电信、公安等部门对逾期未完成整改或整改不到位的校外线上培训机构进行查处,视情节暂停或停止培训平台运营(operation suspended or closed)、下架培训应用(apps removed)、关闭微信公众号(小程序)、依法进行经济处罚等。

 

邮政编码 postal code

7月16日,国家邮政局发展研究中心与北京大学时空大数据创新中心提出“新型邮编”建设,建设完成后,已“服役”近40年的邮政编码或将退出历史舞台。

When the new postal code system is complete, every Chinese citizen will be able to establish a unique "personal address ID" under unified coding rules.
该新型邮编体系建成以后,每个人都可以建立一个基于统一编码规则的唯一“个人地址ID”。

据介绍,“新型邮编”(new postal code system)项目基于国家重点研发计划“全球位置框架与编码系统(global positioning frame and coding systems)”,将地球空间(或地球表面)剖分成体积(面积)形状相似、既无缝隙也不重叠的多层次离散网格(split the terrestrial space into nonoverlapping and seamless multilayer grids similar in size and shape),剖分的网格都具有唯一编码,该编码具有多尺度、可标识、可定位、可索引、可计算、自动空间关联等特点(the code is multidimensional and can be tagged, positioned, searched, computed and used in automatic spacial association)。

【知识点】

我国于1974年开始研制邮政编码(post code/postal code),经过5年左右的时间,拟定出“全国邮政编码试行方案”,并于1978年在辽宁、上海、江苏等省市进行试点。1980年7月1日,我国推出了全国统一使用的邮政编码,开始正式在全国宣传推行。

我国的邮政编码采用四级六位数编码结构(six-digit coding rule)。前两位数字表示省(直辖市、自治区);前三位数字表示邮区;前四位数字表示县(市);最后两位数字表示投递局(所)。


新的邮编系统建成之后,国家邮政局可建立居民个人寄递地址编码管理公共平台,居民可自行在平台上通过身份证信息注册,获得与身份证绑定的个人地址库(individuals can register and establish their own address libraries)。

To deliver a parcel, the sender can select the desired mailing address and send the corresponding code to the courier, who can begin mailing items after typing the code into the system.
在快递服务时,公民选择地址库中想寄达的地址,将对应的编码向快递员发送,快递员将地址以编码的形式录入系统即可开始寄件。

每个快递包裹也将有属于自己的ID,该ID可关联所有与包裹相关的信息,包括快递员信息、运送信息、配送信息(information on the courier, shipment and delivery)等。


个人破产 personal bankruptcy

The country will promote the establishment of a bankruptcy system for insolvent individuals in a step-by-step way, according to the new reform plan released by the National Development and Reform Commission and 12 other central government agencies.
由国家发改委和其他12家中央政府机构发布的改革方案提出,我国将推动逐步建立无偿付能力个人的破产制度。

【名词解释】

个人破产(personal bankruptcy),是指作为债务人的自然人不能清偿其到期债务时,由法院依法宣告其破产(an insolvent individual is declared bankrupt by the court),并对其财产进行清算和分配或者进行债务调整(have their property liquidated, distributed or debt adjusted),对其债务进行豁免(exempted from the liability the individual is unable to pay back)以及确定当事人在破产过程中的权利义务关系的法律规范。


《方案》明确,对符合破产等退出条件的国有企业,各相关方不得以任何方式阻碍其退出,防止形成“僵尸企业”(zombie companies)。不得通过违规提供政府补贴、贷款(illegal government subsidies or loans)等方式维系“僵尸企业”生存,有效解决国有“僵尸企业”不愿退出的问题。国有企业退出时(in case of SOEs' exit),金融机构等债权人不得要求政府承担超出出资额之外的债务清偿责任。

发改委将研究建立个人破产制度(personal bankruptcy system),重点解决企业破产产生的自然人连带责任担保债务问题(resolving the joint liabilities arising from corporate bankruptcy)。明确自然人因担保等原因而承担与生产经营活动相关的负债可依法合理免责。逐步推进建立自然人符合条件的消费负债可依法合理免责(promoting reasonable liability exemptions for individuals),最终建立全面的个人破产制度。

个人申请破产后,是不是可以不用还债了呢?会不会影响债权人的利益呢?

中国人民大学法学院教授徐阳光指出,不要以为只要申请破产就可获得免责,更不要将个人破产等同于“逃废”个人债务。

Not every personal bankruptcy application will be approved and applying for bankruptcy is not a shelter for those trying to avoid paying their debts, said Xu.

并非所有个人破产申请都能获准,个人破产也不能成为一些人逃避债务的“保护伞”。

To get the debt liability exemption, the debtor has to repay part of the debt as a condition and the debtor's economic life will be restricted for about three to five years after the end of bankruptcy proceedings, Xu said.

债务人须偿还部分债务作为免责的条件,在破产程序终结后的一段时间内(通常持续3-5年),债务人的经济生活会受到限制。

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