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2021年8月新闻热词汇总

中国日报网 2021-09-01 10:00

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8月热词有:中国疾控中心专家解释“突破病例”,中国空间站航天员完成第二次出舱活动,全球累计新冠确诊病例超2亿,梅西离开巴萨、加盟巴黎圣日耳曼,云南北移亚洲象群平安回归栖息地,联合国政府间气候变化专门委员会发布气候变化报告,多个河段水位超警,市场监管总局发文禁止“大数据杀熟”等行为,八部门发文保护灵活就业人员权益,利用奥运健儿姓名申请注册商标被驳回,“三孩”政策正式入法,北京市新学期实行干部教师轮岗交流,东京残奥会中国代表团表现亮眼,国家新闻出版署发通知限制未成年人玩网络游戏时间。

 


奥运会男子百米决赛 the men's 100m final in Tokyo 2020

8月1日晚,东京奥运会男子100米比赛中,中国“飞人”苏炳添在半决赛和决赛中均突破10秒大关,创造了中国田径新的历史。

 

Dashing across the track like a bolt of red lightning, the 31-year-old burned himself out by clocking a personal best of 9.83 seconds - the fastest among all semifinalists and a new Asian record - to become the first Chinese to qualify for the men's 100m finals on Sunday.
8月1日,31岁的苏炳添像一束红色的闪电一样飞速冲过跑道,拼尽全力达到了9秒83的个人最好成绩,以半决赛第一晋级决赛,同时创造了新的亚洲纪录。他是第一个冲进奥运会男子百米决赛的中国人。

【词汇讲解】

这里的dash是动词,表示“快跑,猛冲”,比如:I must dash - I've got to be home by seven.(我得赶快跑了,7点之前必须到家)。这个例句中的dash也可以用sprint替换,用作名词的时候,dash和sprint都可以表示体育比赛中的“短跑”项目,比如:100-meter dash/sprint,苏炳添就是一名sprinter(短跑运动员)。此外,dash还有“猛烈拍打”的意思,比如:Waves dashed against the cliffs(波涛拍打着悬崖)。而短语dash one's hope表示“使某人的希望破灭”,比如:Saturday's 2–0 defeat dashed their hopes of reaching the final(上周六的比赛0比2告负,让他们进入决赛的希望泡汤了)。

 

决赛目标:突破10秒


In the final two hours later, Su crossed the finishing line sixth in 9.98 seconds.
在2小时之后的决赛中,苏炳添以9秒98的成绩名列第六。


苏炳添在赛后表示:


"After the semifinals, my strength had dropped significantly, I just wanted to try my best in the final," said Su.
半决赛后,我体能下降得非常厉害,决赛尽可能发挥出自己的水平就胜利了。


But Su set a "small" target to finish the final race within 10 seconds regardless of the ranking.
我给自己定了目标,不管第几名,我的目标就是突破10秒。


"If I made it, it would mean I could run two consecutive races both within 10 seconds, that's big progress for myself," Su said of his plan on the final.
如果能做到,这么短的时间内还能两度跑进10秒,对我来说是一个非常大的进步。

刘翔是我的幸运之神


Expressing appreciation to the constant encouragement he received from fellow Olympian Liu Xiang, who made history to win the 110m hurdles at the 2004 Athens Games, Su said he hoped his achievement could inspire future Chinese athletes.
苏炳添表示,2004年雅典奥运会男子110米栏冠军刘翔不断地鼓励和支持他,希望自己的成绩也能激励之后的中国选手。


"Liu Xiang was indeed an inspiration for Chinese athletics, we wouldn't even think of trying to make it to an Olympic final or win Olympic medals if not for him," said Su.
刘翔是我们中国田径队的开路人。如果没有他的话,我们可能很多人没有想法——要站在奥运会的决赛场上,我们亚洲人也能够拿到奥运会冠军。


"I hope my performance today could serve as an inspiration for younger athletes in their sporting careers. When I was their age, my speed was no match for them. With the techniques and ideas we have, they could achieve much more than I do."
希望我今天的成绩,也能激励更多的年轻运动员。我在他们的这个年龄,根本跑不出这样的成绩。我相信,把现在的技术、理念用到他们身上,肯定会事半功倍。

 

突破病例 breakthrough infections

中国疾控中心研究员、科研攻关组疫苗研发专班专家组成员邵一鸣表示,

It is not surprising to see breakthrough infections-people who contract the virus at least 14 days after being fully vaccinated-because no vaccine is capable of totally preventing people from catching the virus.
完成疫苗接种至少14天后又被感染的病例被称为“突破病例”,这并不是例外,因为没有疫苗能够百分之百防止人们感染病毒。

【知识点】

“突破病例”在英文报道中一般用breakthrough infections或者breakthrough cases表示,breakthrough做名词的时候,我们最熟悉的意思是“(某个方面的)突破,重大进展”,比如:breakthrough in core technology(核心技术方面的突破),而在“突破病例”这个语境下,breakthrough其实是动词短语break through的名词形式,表示“the virus breaks through the protective barrier the vaccine provides”,即“病毒突破了疫苗产生的防护屏障”。


至于新冠疫苗对变异毒株的有效性,邵一鸣介绍:


"All COVID-19 vaccines around the world are evaluated based on their efficacy in preventing clinical disease, as well as their role in reducing serious cases and deaths," he said, adding that against these barometers, no marked difference has been found in domestic vaccines' effects on key mutations.
全球各条技术路线的疫苗有效性评估都是基于其在防止入院及减少重症和死亡病例方面的效果,在这个评判标准下,国内疫苗对几个主要变异毒株的有效性并没有显著变化。


He added that an irrefutable benefit of vaccination lies in that it can always trigger robust "basic immunity" and protective memory cells in human bodies.
疫苗接种一个不可否认的益处在于,疫苗可以触发强有力的“基础免疫”并唤起人体内的保护记忆细胞。


If immunity against the virus wanes in the long run, these memory cells can be "reawakened effectively" by delivering a booster shot and this will "produce very good protective effects", Shao said.
如果在比较长的时间后,身体对病毒的免疫能力逐渐下降,可以通过注射加强针重新唤起体内的这些记忆细胞,并产生非常好的保护效果。

 

暂无全人群加强针接种必要

国际上有部分国家明确为民众提供新冠疫苗加强针的接种,我国是否有考虑?对此,邵一鸣回应称:

"For the general population who have been vaccinated within a year, there is no need to obtain a booster shot for now," he said.
对已完成免疫接种一年以内的普通人群,暂无必要进行加强针接种。

【词汇讲解】

所谓疫苗加强针(booster shot/booster dose),是指在常规使用疫苗剂型、剂量注射后,额外增加的疫苗接种。这里的核心词booster,来源于动词boost,主要表示“加强、促进、推动”等意思,比如boost production(促生产),boost morale(提振士气)等,在这里表示“increase or renew the effect of the vaccine”,即“增强疫苗产生的效果”。


Whether or not people with weak immune systems, such as the elderly and those suffering chronic illnesses, as well as workers at higher risk of contracting the virus or people planning to travel to high-risk areas need a booster dose six to 12 months after initial immunization, and when a booster shot should be rolled out are being researched.
对完成免疫超过6—12个月且免疫功能较弱的老年人和有基础性疾病的患者,以及因工作需要去往高风险地区工作的人员等人群,是否有必要开展加强针,以及什么时间开展加强针的接种,正在进行研究。

 

疫苗接种必须和严格的防控措施并用

邵一鸣表示,

Many countries, despite their high vaccination coverage rates, are grappling with a resurgence of outbreaks due to a rush to relax anti-virus policies, such as wearing masks and maintaining social distancing.
虽然很多国家疫苗接种率已经很高了,但是在放宽戴口罩和保持社交距离等疫情控制措施之后,仍然出现了大幅度的疫情反弹。


"This shows that inoculation must be used in conjunction with strict disease control measures," he said, calling on the public to continue practicing personal protective protocols.
这说明,疫苗接种必须和严格的防控措施并用,请大家继续维持个人的防护措施。

 

航天员的日常 daily routines of astronauts

一转眼,三位航天员的太空出差之旅已经过半,他们的日常生活是什么样的呢?

 

The astronauts have been exercising, maintaining healthy diets and undergoing regular check-ups to reduce the effects of living in a microgravity environment.
航天员们一直在锻炼身体,保持健康饮食,并定期进行身体检查,以减少微重力环境下生活产生的影响。


每天锻炼身体


In Tianhe's exercise area, the three astronauts can use a treadmill, spin bike and resistance bands to burn calories and practice strength training.
在“天和”核心舱的锻炼区,三位航天员可以使用跑步机、健身车以及阻力带等健身设备来消耗热量,并进行力量训练。


中国航天员科研训练中心、航天员系统副总设计师李莹辉介绍:

The three astronauts have personalized daily exercise schedules according to their physical conditions.
他们现在的锻炼是家常饭,每天都有的,每个人都有每个人的“处方”。


They currently undertake moderate-intensity exercises every day, at levels requiring approximately 60 to 80 percent of the astronauts' maximum strength.
目前,他们每天的锻炼强度应该说达到每个人最大能力的60%到80%,强度属于中上。


The intensity will gradually increase as their time in space progresses. It is only in this way that they can resist the physiological effects of microgravity.
飞行时间越长,这个强度要逐渐增大,只有这样才能够维持他们对抗失重的生理效应。

定期体检

航天员系统副总设计师刘伟波介绍,

Dozens of pieces of medical equipment are available in a checkup cabinet. The astronauts have regular physical checkups every four to five weeks, including ultrasound examinations and complete blood counts.
检查柜里有十几件医疗设备,航天员们每四到五周进行定期体检,包括超声检查和全血细胞计数。

中国航天员科研训练中心航天员医监医保室主任徐冲表示,常规的检查功能对他们来说“小菜一碟了。”

 

航天员在空间站喝水如何保证?

8月3日,话题#航天员在空间站喝水如何保证#冲上热搜。

对于这个问题,专家是这样回答的:

Chinese scientists have devised a system to recycle water from the urine, breath and sweat produced by astronauts in space, which could save up to 100 million yuan in a period of six months with three astronauts in orbit.
我国科学家研制了一个水循环系统,可以将航天员在太空期间产生的尿液、呼气以及汗液回收利用,按3名航天员在轨6个月计算,可以节省高达1亿元人民币的经费。


More than 80% of water produced in space can be recycled and changed into drinkable water in the system.
该系统能够回收循环利用空间站中80%以上的水,并能达到饮用级标准。

 


航天员们在太空洗衣服吗?

航天员中心航天员系统副总设计师刘伟波介绍:

The three astronauts don't do laundry in space and use disposable clothing instead.
三位航天员在太空不洗衣服,他们穿的是一次性衣服。

 

这样安排的原因是:

Water, which is contaminated with detergent as well as skin debris and dirt washed from the body, will be challenging to recycle.
被洗涤剂、脱落的皮肤组织以及身上洗下来的污垢污染的水很难回收利用。


而且,


Disposable clothing that is regularly changed and discarded costs much less than doing laundry with water.
定期更换和丢弃一次性衣服比用水洗衣服的成本更低。


8月20日,航天员在机械臂的配合下圆满完成第二次出舱活动(the second extravehicular activity)。

 

 

全球累计新冠确诊病例 Global COVID-19 cases

美国约翰斯·霍普金斯大学发布的新冠疫情最新统计数据显示,

Global COVID-19 cases surpassed 200 million on Wednesday, according to data from Johns Hopkins University.The global case count amounted to 200,014,602, with 4,252,873 deaths worldwide, as of 3:21 pm local time, showed the data.
截至美国东部时间8月4日15时21分(北京时间8月5日3时21分),全球累计新冠确诊病例超过2亿例,达200014602例,累计死亡病例4252873例。

数据显示,美国是累计确诊病例和死亡病例最多的国家。

The United States reported 35,292,721 cases and 614,666 deaths, both the highest counts around the world, accounting for nearly 18 percent of the global cases and nearly 15 percent of the global deaths.
美国累计确诊病例35292721例,累计死亡病例614666例,在全球确诊病例和死亡病例总数中分别占比近18%和15%,均为全球最高。


The United States accounts for one in every seven infections reported worldwide.
全世界每七个感染病例中就有一例来自于美国。


US states with low vaccination rates such as Florida and Louisiana are seeing record numbers of COVID patients hospitalized, despite the nation giving 70% of adults at least one vaccine shot.
虽然美国有70%的成年人已经至少接种了一剂疫苗,但是在佛罗里达和路易斯安那等接种率偏低的州,新冠患者住院人数仍在不断创纪录。


Unvaccinated people represent nearly 97% of severe cases, according to the White House COVID-19 Response Team.
据白宫新冠疫情应对小组称,重症病例中有近97%的人没有接种疫苗。

 


约翰斯·霍普金斯大学统计数据显示,

The global caseload reached the grim milestone of 100 million on Jan 26, and doubled in just over six months.
全球累计确诊病例今年1月26日超过1亿例,从1亿例升至2亿例仅用了6个多月。

 

新冠变异病毒德尔塔毒株在全球蔓延


US COVID-19 cases driven by the Delta variant may double to 200,000 a day in the fall, said Anthony Fauci, head of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, on Wednesday.
8月4日,美国国家过敏和传染病研究所院长福奇表示,今年秋季,德尔塔毒株在美国引发的新冠肺炎病例可能会暴增到每天20万例。


"What we're seeing, because of this increase in transmissibility, and because we have about 93 million people in this country who are eligible to get vaccinated who don't get vaccinated - that you have a significant pool of vulnerable people," said Fauci.
福奇说:“我们现在的情况是,因为这个毒株的传染性更强,而且我们有9300万符合疫苗接种条件却没有打疫苗的人,导致有很大的一个易感染群体。”


Countries in Southeast Asia are also reporting rising cases. With just 8% of the world's population, the region is reporting almost 15% of all global cases each day.
东南亚国家报告的病例数也在不断增加。该地区人口占全球人口总数仅8%,但是每天报告的病例数却在全球病例总数中占比近15%。

 

世卫组织呼吁暂缓接种加强针 将疫苗提供给低收入国家

The World Health Organization is calling for a halt on COVID-19 vaccine boosters until at least the end of September, its head Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said on Wednesday, as the gap between vaccinations in wealthy and poor countries widens.
随着贫富国家之间的疫苗接种鸿沟不断扩大,世卫组织总干事谭德赛呼吁将新冠疫苗加强针的接种暂缓至9月底以后。


High-income countries administered around 50 doses for every 100 people in May, and that number has since doubled, according to WHO. Low-income countries have only been able to administer 1.5 doses for every 100 people, due to lack of supply.
世卫组织表示,今年5月,高收入国家每100人约接种了50剂,后来这个数字又增加了一倍;而低收入国家由于疫苗供应短缺,每100人仅接种了1.5剂。


"We need an urgent reversal from the majority of vaccines going to high-income countries to the majority going to low-income countries," Tedros said.
谭德赛表示:“我们需要将多数疫苗流向高收入国家的形势紧急扭转为多数疫苗流向低收入国家。”

中国新冠疫苗接种超17亿剂次 积极推动新冠疫苗可及性和可负担性


The Chinese mainland has administered more than 1.7 billion doses of novel coronavirus vaccines as of Tuesday, according to the National Health Commission.
国家卫健委表示,截至8月3日,中国大陆新冠疫苗接种剂次已超17亿。


China is working relentlessly to make COVID-19 vaccines an accessible and affordable public good in developing economies, including those in Africa, to push forward the equal distribution of vaccines.
中国一直致力于促进疫苗公平分配,确保新冠疫苗在非洲等发展中国家的可及性和可负担性,让疫苗成为全球公共产品。


China has so far provided more than 750 million doses of COVID-19 vaccines overseas and, over the next four months, will provide 110 million doses to COVAX, the Foreign Ministry said on Tuesday.
8月3日,外交部表示,截至目前,我国已经向海外提供了7.5亿剂新冠疫苗,接下来的4个月,还将向“新冠肺炎疫苗实施计划”提供1.1亿剂疫苗。

【知识点】

2020年10月8日,中国同全球疫苗免疫联盟签署协议,正式加入“新冠肺炎疫苗实施计划(COVAX)”。这是中国秉持人类卫生健康共同体理念(uphold the concept of a shared community of health for all)、履行自身承诺推动疫苗成为全球公共产品(turn COVID-19 vaccines into a global public good)的一个重要举措。

“新冠肺炎疫苗实施计划”由世界卫生组织和全球疫苗免疫联盟、流行病防范创新联盟共同牵头成立,拟于2021年底前向全球提供20亿剂新冠肺炎疫苗(the initial aim is to have 2 billion doses available by the end of 2021),供应给“自费经济体(higher-income self-financing countries)”和“受资助经济体(lower-income funded nations)”。包括我国在内的“自费经济体”需向该计划承诺为本经济体一定比例人口购买疫苗并缴纳预付款,而“受资助经济体”无须缴纳预付款,同时享受该计划补贴。

 

China has shown its kindness to the world by donating 26 million doses of COVID-19 vaccines overseas and had provided more than 500 million doses, as well as bulk vaccine, to over 100 countries, regions and international organizations by the end of July-roughly one-sixth of the world's total COVID-19 vaccine output.
截至2021年7月,我国已对外捐赠疫苗超2600万剂,向100多个国家、地区和国际组织提供了超过5亿剂疫苗和原液,相当于全球新冠疫苗总产量的六分之一。

 

梅西离开巴萨 Lionel Messi parted with Barca

北京时间8月6日凌晨,西甲巴塞罗那俱乐部发布公告称,梅西将不会继续为巴萨效力。

 

Six-time Ballon d'Or winner Lionel Messi will leave Barcelona despite both parties having reached an agreement over a new contract, the La Liga club said, citing economic and structural obstacles to the renewal of the deal.
西甲巴塞罗那俱乐部表示,尽管双方已就签订新合同达成协议,但由于经济和制度因素的制约,梅西将不再效力巴萨。梅西曾六次获得金球奖。


34岁的梅西在巴萨创造了多项纪录,被认为是巴萨历史上最伟大的球员之一。

Messi, who joined Barca's youth set-up aged 13, is the club's all-time top scorer and appearance maker with 672 goals in 778 games in all competitions.
梅西13岁加入巴萨青训营,他已为这支球队在正式比赛中出战778场,打入672个进球,是该俱乐部史上出场次数最多、进球最多的队员。


The Argentine helped Barcelona claim 10 league titles, four Champions Leagues and three Club World Cups among his haul of 35 trophies.
梅西为巴萨赢得了35座冠军奖杯,其中包括10个西甲联赛冠军、4个欧洲冠军联赛冠军和3个国际足联俱乐部世界杯冠军。

【知识点】

体育类报道中经常看到的一些足球国际赛事有:

世界杯(FIFA World Cup),由国际足球联合会(FIFA)每四年举办一次,是世界足坛规模最大、水平最高的赛事。2022年世界杯将在卡塔尔举行。

欧洲足球锦标赛(UEFA European Championship),即“欧洲杯”,是由欧洲足联(the Union of European Football Associations)成员国参加的最高级别国家级足球赛事,于1960年举行第一届,其后每四年举行一届。赛事创办时名称为European Nations Cup,其后于1968年改名为European Football Championship。

欧洲冠军联赛(UEFA Champions League),是欧足联最有声望的一项俱乐部赛事,前身是1955/56赛季创建的欧洲俱乐部冠军杯赛,1992年欧洲足联对这项杯赛的赛制和名称进行了修改。

国际足联俱乐部世界杯(FIFA Club World Cup),简称“世俱杯”,是由国际足联主办、来自六大洲最顶级的球队参与的国际性足球锦标赛。

亚洲杯足球赛(AFC Asian Cup),简称“亚洲杯”,是由亚洲足球联合会(Asian Football Confederation)举办的每四年一届的国际性足球锦标赛,属于亚洲区内最高级别的国家级赛事,参赛球队必须是亚足联成员。

巴萨在声明中表示:

"Despite FC Barcelona and Lionel Messi having reached an agreement and the clear intention of both parties to sign a new contract today, this cannot happen because of financial and structural obstacles (Spanish La Liga regulations)," Barca said in a statement.
俱乐部和梅西之间原本已达成了一项协议,且双方均有在当日签署新合同的明确意向,但由于经济上和西甲相关规定方面的障碍,最终双方未能成功签订合同。


"As a result of this situation, Messi shall not be staying on at FC Barcelona. Both parties deeply regret that the wishes of the player and the club will ultimately not be fulfilled.
鉴于这一情况,梅西将不会继续留在巴塞罗那足球俱乐部效力,俱乐部和球员本人的愿望最终未能达成,双方对此都深表遗憾。


"FC Barcelona wholeheartedly expresses its gratitude to the player for his contribution to the aggrandisement of the club and wishes him all the very best for the future in his personal and professional life."
巴萨衷心感谢梅西为球队发展壮大所做的贡献,并祝愿他在未来的个人生活和职业生涯中一切顺利。

【词汇讲解】

这里的aggrandisement的意思是“an increase in power or importance”,即“影响力或地位的提升”,比如:He gives a lot of money to charity, but personal aggrandizement is his motive.(他花了很多钱做慈善,但他的目的其实是提升个人影响力。)

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