三资企业 Foreign-funded enterprises
A term for three kinds of foreign-invested enterprises or ventures in China, which include Sino-foreign joint ventures, cooperative businesses, and exclusively foreign-owned enterprises. As an economic entity responsible for their own profits and losses, these enterprises are set up within China after being approved by relevant State departments and are run in accordance with China's laws. Since reform and opening-up in 1978, these enterprises have played an important role in helping the country absorb foreign investment, introduce foreign advanced technologies and management know-how, as well as expand export.
铁饭碗 Iron Rice Bowl
A guaranteed job many Chinese people dreamed of getting during the era of the planned economy. People didn't need to worry about their future once they gained a post usually in government departments and State or collectively run factories. But since the reform and opening-up was adopted in 1978 and the new labor system and the market economy came into being, such a stable employment model, which hindered people's creativity to a large extent, has gradually been shattered. The establishment of the new and competitive employment model has contributed a lot to the country's productivity and its rapid development.
菜篮子工程Non-Staple Food Project
A State initiative to ensure the supply of vegetables, diary, pork and poultry products other than grains.
In 1988, the Ministry of Agriculture started this project against a background that the country could not produce enough non-grain food with rich diversity. Under the project, agricultural bases were established to boost production and supply, and special markets for agricultural produce were set up. By the mid 1990s, food diversity was improved and a reserve network was established around the country. The project then shifted its focus on food safety and branding.
A drive launched by the central government in 2000 to promote social and economic progress in the central and western parts of the country, which are relatively less developed than the rest of the country.
By injecting financial aid and offering favorable policies, the State wants to speed up infrastructure construction, industrialization and poverty eradication in these areas. Officials, technicians and other qualified talents have been dispatched from the eastern regions to lend a hand.
The campaign covers nearly 400 million people living in Chongqing Municipality, Sichuan Province, Guizhou Province, Yunnan Province, the Tibet Autonomous Region, Shaanxi Province, Gansu Province, Qinghai Province, the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.
又好又快发展Sound and Fast Development
A goal set for China's economic progress that underscores both quality and speed. Officials attending the Central Economic Work Conference in 2005 made "fast and sound" development one of the country's goals. It was revised to "sound and fast" development at the following year's conference. In his report to the 17th National Congress of the Communist Party of China in 2007, General Secretary Hu Jintao said the economy must advance in a comprehensive, balanced and sustainable manner by putting "sound" before "fast". The change demonstrates the central government's determination to bring about a shift in the country's economic growth mode.
小康社会 A moderately prosperous society
A blueprint for the development of the society featuring comprehensive improvement in the economy, democracy, science and technology, social culture, and people's lives.
In the 1980s, late Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping set a target for the country to realize "a moderately prosperous society" by 2000, which was mostly about growth in the economic indicators.
Jiang Zemin, the former president, officially widened the concept to cover more social aspects in his report to the 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China in 2002. Besides quadrupling the country's GDP of 2000 by 2020, other targets included implementing the rule of law, fostering market economy, ensuring universal coverage of social security, and helping most people live a comfortable life.
President Hu Jintao in his report to the 17th CPC National Congress added new elements to the blueprint by stressing transformation of the economic development pattern, and sustainability of growth.
A model for economic growth which aims at environmental protection, pollution prevention and sustainable development.
Under this model, resources are used with higher efficiency and reused and recycled when possible, so that pollution is minimized and waste is reduced as much as possible. It also involves the transformation of industrial organization and allocation, urban infrastructure, environmental protection, technological paradigms, and social welfare distribution.
An important part in China's effort toward sustainable development, circular economy was officially raised as a target for China's future growth in 2004. The State Council issued a file about promoting it in July 2005, making it a key guideline in the 11th Five-Year Plan and to achieve the specific goals in energy conservation and pollution reduction before 2020.