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2020年2月新闻热词汇总

中国日报网 2020-03-01 10:00

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粪便样本 stool specimens

Researchers from multiple organizations, including the State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease under Guangzhou Medical University, have successfully isolated a strain of virus from swab sample of an infected patient's feces, said Zhao Jincun, a member of Chinese respiratory expert Zhong Nanshan's research group, at a press conference Thursday.
钟南山院士团队专家、呼吸疾病国家重点实验室副主任赵金存教授介绍,广州医科大学呼吸疾病国家重点实验室等多个研究机构的研究人员,从一例新冠肺炎患者的粪便拭子标本中分离到一株新型冠状病毒。

The swab sample was provided by the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, said Zhao, also a professor with the laboratory.
该样本是由珠海中山大学附属第五医院提供的粪便拭子标本。

Meanwhile, a research team led by Li Lanjuan, a renowned Chinese epidemiologist, also isolated novel coronavirus strains from stool specimens of infected patients. Three of the five feces samples tested positive, according to Wu Nanping, deputy director of the State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Zhejiang University.
我国知名病毒学家李兰娟院士团队近日也同样从患者粪便样本中分离到病毒。浙江大学传染病诊治国家重点实验室副主任吴南屏教授介绍,研究人员从5份粪便样本中分离到了3份新型冠状病毒阳性。

赵金存表示,这个发现证实了排出的粪便的确存在活病毒,不过目前还没有充分的证据说明存在粪口传播(fecal-oral transmission)。

国家卫生健康委新闻发言人、宣传司副司长米锋表示:

Transmission through means of respiratory and contact remain the major routes of the novel coronavirus spreading. Despite digestive tract problems of some patients, either as incipient symptoms or complications, the main clinical symptoms of the disease are fever, general weakness and dry cough, Mi said, adding that the coronavirus isolated from patients' feces is not yet illustrative to prove the change of the transmission route.
不管患者消化道症状是初发症状还是并发症状,发热、乏力、干咳仍然是最重要的临床表现。粪便中分离到病毒并不意味着该病主要传播途径发生变化,仍为呼吸道和接触传播为主。

Mi said that stomach and intestine symptoms, such as diarrhea, of some patients in the early stages, the positive test for the coronavirus nucleic acid in feces samples of patients and the isolated virus from patients' feces samples indicate the proliferation of the virus can happen in the digestive tract after infection.
部分病例早期的症状中有腹泻等胃肠道的症状,患者粪便的标本中核酸检测阳性或分离到病毒,提示感染新冠病毒后,病毒在消化道内也可以增殖。


注意个人和家庭卫生

米锋表示,戴好口罩和做好手卫生(wearing masks and keeping hands clean)是最重要、最有效的防护措施,坚持勤洗手、规范洗手和手消毒(washing hands more frequently, in the right way and disinfection of hands),可以从根本上减少感染风险。

吴南屏建议:大家注意公共卫生,多洗手、吃熟食,食物要洗净烧透(make sure that food is thoroughly cleaned and well cooked),注意个人卫生及必要的污水处理(sewage treatment)。

赵金存表示,提醒大家要更加重视个人和家庭的清洁,如便后洗手,注意下水道的通畅(make sure the plumbing system run smoothly),以避免有可能出现的粪便病毒的传播。

 

血浆治疗 plasma therapy

In the latest guideline over the diagnosis and treatment of the virus issued on Feb 5, the top health authorities said plasma of recovering patients could be employed to fight the disease.
国家卫生健康委员会2月5日发布的《新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎诊疗方案(试行第五版)》,提出可采用恢复期患者的血浆治疗新冠病毒。

业内专家指出,从临床病理发生过程看,大部分新冠肺炎患者经过治疗康复后,身体内会产生针对新冠病毒的特异性抗体(antibodies for the novel coronavirus),可杀灭和清除病毒。

2月8日,以新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎诊疗方案(试行第五版)为指南,首期在武汉市江夏区第一人民医院开展了3名危重患者的新冠特免血浆治疗,目前连同后续医院治疗的危重病人超过了10人。

Seven patients are receiving treatment using the therapy at Jiangxia First People's Hospital, in Wuhan's Jiangxia district, Liu Bende, vice-president of the hospital, said.
武汉市江夏区第一人民医院副院长刘本德表示,该医院有7名患者正在接受恢复期血浆治疗。

Twelve to 24 hours after the therapy, patients have seen a decline in indicators of inflammation and a hike in lymphocytes, among other favorable turns.
患者接受治疗12至24小时后,实验室检测主要炎症指标明显下降,淋巴细胞比例上升,血氧饱和度、其他重点指标全面向好。

"Of the patients, those in serious condition have not deteriorated so far, while those in a milder condition have showed improvement," he said. "In general, we have not seen serious side effects or complications due to the therapy."
他指出,接受该疗法的患者中,重症患者情况没有恶化,症状较轻患者情况有改善。总体来说,没有发现因血浆疗法而产生严重的副作用或并发症。

2月13日,湖北省武汉金银潭医院院长张定宇在发布会上恳请康复后的患者捐献血浆,共同拯救还在与病魔作斗争的病人。

那么,符合哪些条件的恢复期患者的血浆,才会被采样并使用?

上海市公共卫生临床中心医务部主任沈银忠表示,

Cured patients have to meet certain criteria before donating plasma. "First, donors must be in good health… we won't collect their plasma forcefully," Shen said. "They must donate voluntarily."
康复患者捐献血浆要符合一些特定的要求,首先,捐献者身体要健康,我们不可能强行去采他的血,患者要自愿。


江夏区第一人民医院副院长刘本德表示,

Plasma from patients with chronic diseases cannot be used, even if they have recovered from novel coronavirus pneumonia.
患有慢性病的新冠肺炎康复患者捐献的血浆也不能使用。

康复者治愈后多久可以捐献?

金银潭医院院长张定宇表示,建议康复者在治愈两周后参加捐献(donate plasma two weeks after full recovery),这样能保证他体内的病毒已经得到很好地清除。

 

野生动物违规交易 illegal trade of wild animals

国家林草局与国家市场监管总局、公安部、农业农村部、海关总署日前联合开展打击野生动物违规交易专项执法行动,取缔和严厉打击疫情期间野生动物违规交易行为。

 

Sites used to breed wild animals will be placed under strict isolation, and nearby warning signs are now required, according to an announcement by the five departments released on Friday.
专项执法行动要求,严格隔离饲养繁育野生动物场所,场所周边应当设置隔离警示标识。

Furthermore, trade or transportation of wild animals and related products are prohibited in both brick and mortar stores and e-commerce platforms. Exceptions are only made for fished aquatic products.
专项执法行动指出,除捕捞水产品外,严禁各类实体店及电商平台等经营场所开展任何形式的野生动物及制品交易和运输活动。

The announcement said any store that breaks the law will be closed, and anybody illegally trading or transporting wild animals will receive heavier punishment in accordance with related laws and regulations.
经营场所一律查封,违法从事出售、购买、利用、运输、携带、寄递野生动物及制品等交易活动的,依据相关法律法规予以从重处罚。

1月26日,为严防新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎疫情,阻断可能的传染源和传播途径,市场监管总局、农业农村部、国家林草局决定,即日起至全国疫情解除期间,禁止野生动物交易活动(impose a temporary ban on the trade of all wild animals across the country)。

In Yunnan province, 2,351 wild animal farms have been temporarily closed to the public, and all administrative approvals related to wild animals have been suspended.
云南省对2351家野生动物人工驯养繁育场所进行了封控管理,暂停野生动物相关行政审批。

By Feb 11, the Yunnan forestry security department had handled 186 cases of illegal wild animal trading with 20 suspects being held and 1,405 live animals caught.
截至2月11日,云南省森林公安局处理野生动物违法交易案件186起,抓获嫌疑人20人,收缴野生动物活体1405头(只)。


流行病学特征 epidemiological characteristics

2月17日,中国疾病预防控制中心新型冠状病毒肺炎应急响应机制流行病学组在《中华流行病学杂志》上发表新冠肺炎最新研究《新型冠状病毒肺炎流行病学特征分析(the epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases)》。

该研究根据传染病信息系统中报告的截至2月11日中国内地所有新冠肺炎共计72314例病例数据,对新冠肺炎流行病学特征进行了描述和分析。

It finds that 80.9% of infections are classified as mild, 13.8% as severe and 4.7% as critical. The number of deaths among those infected, known as the fatality rate, remains low but rises among those over 80 years old.
研究发现,80.9%的新冠病毒感染者为轻症,13.8%为重症,4.7%为危重。病死率保持在低位,不过在80岁以上人群中病死率有所上升。

Looking at the sex ratio, men are more likely to die (2.8%) than women (1.7%).
性别比例方面,男性患者的病死率为2.8%,高于女性(1.7%)。

The study also identifies which existing illnesses put patients at risk. It puts cardiovascular disease at number one, followed by diabetes, chronic respiratory disease and hypertension.
该研究还发现一些现有疾病会对感染者病情产生影响,影响最大的是心血管疾病,其次为糖尿病,慢性呼吸系统疾病以及高血压。

The paper says that a total of 3,019 health workers have been infected, 1,716 of which were confirmed cases. Five had died by February 11.
研究指出,共有3019名医护人员感染,其中1716名为确诊病例。截至2月11日,已有5名医护人员殉职。

据国家卫健委官方网站数据显示,2月18日0—24时,全国除湖北以外地区新增确诊病例56例,连续15日呈现下降态势。

The study suggests that the downward trend in the overall epidemic curve could mean that "isolation of whole cities, broadcast of critical information (e.g., promoting hand washing, mask wearing) with high frequency through multiple channels, and mobilization of a multi-sector rapid response teams is helping to curb the epidemic".
该研究指出,疫情总体曲线呈下降态势说明“城市封闭管理,多渠道高频率的关键信息传播(比如,宣传洗手、戴口罩等),以及多部门快速响应团队的发动在抑制疫情方面发挥了作用”。


诊疗方案 treatment plan

国家卫健委2月19日发布《新型冠状病毒肺炎诊疗方案(试行第六版)》,在第五版诊疗方案的基础上,对传播途径、临床表现、治疗等多方面内容进行了修改细化。

The latest version of the plan abolished different epidemic-related standards inside and outside the epicenter of Hubei province, and will only identify "suspected cases" and "confirmed cases" across the country.
最新版诊断标准取消了湖北省和湖北省以外其他省份的区别,统一分为“疑似病例”和“确诊病例”两类。

国家卫健委有关专家表示,诊疗方案五次调整更新,边实践边总结边完善,将很多行之有效的治疗经验纳入指导工作当中,不断提高疾病的规范化诊疗水平。

具体来看,第六版诊疗方案将“经呼吸道飞沫和接触传播是主要的传播途径”改为“经呼吸道飞沫和密切接触传播是主要的传播途径(the main transmission route is droplet transmission and close contact transmission)。”“接触”前增加“密切”二字。增加“在相对封闭的环境中长时间暴露于高浓度气溶胶情况下存在经气溶胶传播的可能(aerosol transmission of the novel coronavirus is possible if one is exposed to a highly concentrated mixture in an enclosed area for an extended period)。”

临床表现上,重症患者严重者除了“快速进展为急性呼吸窘迫综合征(develop rapidly into Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome)、脓毒症休克(septic shock)、难以纠正的代谢性酸中毒(difficult-to-tackle metabolic acidosis)和出凝血功能障碍(bleeding and coagulation dysfunction)”外,还可出现“多器官功能衰竭(multiple organ failure)”。

此外,在重症、危重症病例的治疗(treatment of patients displaying serious or critical symptoms)中,对康复者血浆治疗(infusions of blood plasma from recovered patients)的适用症和用法、用量进一步细化。

值得注意的是,诊疗方案还增加了“出院后注意事项”,患者出院后,因恢复期机体免疫功能低下,有感染其他病原体风险,应继续进行14天自我健康状况监测(recovered patients should monitor health conditions and continue to quarantine themselves for 14 days),佩戴口罩,有条件的居住在通风良好的单人房间,减少与家人的近距离密切接触,分餐饮食,做好手卫生,避免外出活动。建议在出院后第2周、第4周到医院随访、复诊(at the second and fourth week after being discharged, they are supposed to revisit the hospital and undergo a checkup)。

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