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《中国军队参加联合国维和行动30年》白皮书(双语全文)

新华网 2020-09-18 13:26

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三、中国全面落实联合国维和峰会承诺
III. Implementation of Pledges Announced at the UN Summit


2015年9月28日,中国国家主席习近平出席联合国维和峰会,宣布支持联合国维和行动的6项承诺。中国政府和军队坚决贯彻落实习近平主席决策部署,言必信、行必果,以实际行动履行相关承诺,取得一系列重要成果。5年来,中国维和部队构成从单一军种为主向多军兵种拓展,任务类型从支援保障向综合多能转型,行动目标从制止武装冲突向建设持久和平延伸,维和能力进一步提升。
On September 28, 2015, President Xi Jinping addressed the Leaders' Summit on Peacekeeping at UNHQ and announced six measures that China would take to support UN peacekeeping. The Chinese government and armed forces have faithfully implemented the decisions and directions of President Xi Jinping, and taken concrete steps to honor their promises. Important progress has been made over the past five years. China's armed forces have expanded the composition of their peacekeeping troops from single service to multiple military branches, enabling Chinese peacekeepers to perform diverse tasks in addition to enabling functions. The objectives of China's peacekeeping efforts have extended beyond conflict prevention to building lasting peace. As a result, the peacekeeping capacity of China's armed forces has been further strengthened.


(一)完成维和待命部队组建
1. A Peacekeeping Standby Force in Position


维和行动快速部署,能为和平争取机会,为生命赢得时间。中国军队大力支持联合国维和能力待命机制建设,提升维和行动快速部署能力。2017年9月,完成8000人规模维和待命部队在联合国的注册,包括步兵、工兵、运输、医疗、警卫、快反、直升机、运输机、无人机、水面舰艇等10类专业力量28支分队。2018年10月,13支维和待命分队通过联合国组织的考察评估,晋升为二级待命部队。2019年至2020年,先后有6支维和待命分队由二级晋升为三级待命部队。中国维和待命部队按照联合国标准严格施训,始终保持规定待命状态,是一支训练有素、装备精良、纪律严明的专业力量。中国已成为联合国维和待命部队数量最多、分队种类最齐全的国家。此外,中国公安部2016年6月率先组建了全球首支成建制常备维和警队,该警队2019年10月晋升为快速部署等级。
Rapid deployment of peacekeeping forces means greater opportunities to maintain peace and protect lives. China's armed forces fully support the UN in developing the Peacekeeping Capability Readiness System (PCRS) and reinforcing UN rapid deployment capacity. In September 2017, China completed the registration of a UN peacekeeping standby force of 8,000 troops. This force has 28 units in ten categories -- infantry, engineer, transport, medical, force protection, rapid response, helicopter, transport aircraft, UAV, and surface ship units. In October 2018, after a satisfactory Assessment and Advisory Visit (AAV) by a UNHQ team, 13 of these units were elevated to PCRS Level 2. In 2019 and 2020, six units were upgraded to PCRS Level 3 from Level 2. The Chinese standby force has been trained in strict compliance with the UN criteria and maintained the requisite degree of preparedness. It is now a well-trained, well-equipped and disciplined specialized force. China has become the country with the largest number of standby peacekeeping troops of the most diversified profile. In addition, in June 2016, the Chinese Ministry of Public Security set up a permanent peacekeeping police squad, the first of its kind in the world. The squad was pledged to the PCRS Rapid Deployment Level (RDL) in October 2019.


(二)派遣更多保障人员参加联合国维和行动
2. More Enabling Capabilities to the UNPKOs


工程、运输、医疗等后勤保障力量是维和行动的重要支撑,既有效提高特派团履职效能,又为驻在国战后重建和改善民生发挥重要作用。中国军队具有派遣保障分队参加维和行动的传统和优势。2015年联合国维和峰会以来,中国军队积极响应联合国维和行动在工程保障、医疗救治等方面的力量需求,先后派遣25批维和工兵和医疗分队共7001人,参加在刚果(金)、南苏丹、苏丹达尔富尔、马里、黎巴嫩的维和行动。2020年8月,中国军队有6支工兵分队1188人、4支医疗分队199人正在遂行联合国维和任务。他们在危险动荡和艰苦环境下修路架桥、扫雷排爆、救死扶伤、支援重建,圆满完成联合国赋予的各项任务,为当地和平进程作出积极贡献,树立了联合国维和部队的良好形象。
Enabler troops including engineer, transport and medical units provide vital support to peacekeeping missions. They play an important part in promoting the effectiveness of UN missions, facilitating post-conflict reconstruction and improving lives in host nations. China traditionally deploys hard-to-source enabler troops. After the Leaders' Summit on Peacekeeping in 2015, China responded actively to the UN call for more enabler assets including engineering and medical capabilities. Twenty-five rotations of engineer and medical units totaling 7,001 troops have been committed to missions in the DRC, South Sudan, Sudan's Darfur, Mali and Lebanon. As of August 2020, six Chinese engineer units of 1,188 troops and four medical units of 199 troops were serving on UN missions. In the danger, turbulence and harsh conditions of mission areas, Chinese military peacekeepers have successfully performed all tasks entrusted by the UN including building paved roads and bridges, clearing mines and explosives, providing medical services, and supporting reconstruction in host nations. They have contributed to the local peace process and promoted the public image of UN peacekeepers.


(三)完成为各国培训维和人员任务
3. Training Foreign Peacekeepers


中国军队秉持资源共享、合作共赢的精神,积极帮助其他出兵国提高训练水平,增强应对复杂环境能力,更好遂行联合国维和任务。5年来,先后举办了保护平民、维和特派团高级官员、维和教官、维和军事专业人员、女性维和军官等20批专业培训,为60多个国家训练维和人员1500余人。中国军队开展扫雷援助项目,为柬埔寨、老挝、埃塞俄比亚、苏丹、赞比亚、津巴布韦等国培训扫雷人员300余人。此外,中国公安部培训多国维和警务人员1000余人。
China's armed forces are willing to share their peacekeeping assets in a spirit of win-win. They have actively helped other TCCs improve training, build capability to respond to complex situation, and better perform in the UNPKOs. In the past five years, China has provided 20 training programs to over 1,500 peacekeepers from more than 60 countries, covering civilian protection and courses for senior mission officials, trainers, military professionals, and female officers. The Chinese military provided assistance in demining and trained more than 300 professionals from countries including Cambodia, Laos, Ethiopia, Sudan, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The Chinese Ministry of Public Security also trained more than 1,000 foreign peacekeeping police officers.


(四)向非盟提供无偿军事援助
4. Military Aid Gratis to the African Union (AU)


维和行动的主要需求在非洲。为支持非洲国家提高自身维和维稳能力,以非洲方式解决非洲问题,中国军队积极落实对非盟1亿美元无偿军事援助,支持非洲常备军和危机应对快速反应部队建设。迄今为止,中国军队已向非盟交付首批军援装备和物资,派遣军事专家组对非方人员进行交装培训,并与非盟就下阶段军援安排达成一致。
Africa has the greatest need for peacekeeping. In order to help the African countries improve their ability to maintain peace and stability, and provide African solutions to African issues, the PLA has honored China's commitment of gratis military aid to the value of USD100 million to support the African Standby Force and the African Capacity for Immediate Response to Crisis. The first installment of the aid including military equipment and supplies has been delivered to the AU, and Chinese military experts have been sent to complete the hand-over and provide end-user training. The PLA has agreed with the AU on the arrangement of the next aid installments.


(五)派出首支维和直升机分队遂行任务
5. The First Peacekeeping Helicopter Unit in Operation


中国战鹰为和平翱翔。2017年8月,中国军队向非盟-联合国达尔富尔混合行动(联非达团)派出140人的首支直升机分队部署到位,编配4架中型多用途直升机,主要承担部队投送、行动支援、人员搜救后送、后勤补给等任务。中国维和直升机分队在海外陌生复杂环境下完成多个高风险任务,成为联非达团重要的军事航空力量,为联合国在苏丹达尔富尔地区的维和行动提供了重要支撑。
The PLA helicopter unit made its first flight on a peacekeeping mission in August 2017. China's armed forces deployed their first peacekeeping helicopter unit of 140 troops to the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID). The unit was composed of four medium multi-purpose helicopters and tasked with force delivery, operational support, search and rescue, medical evacuation, and logistic supply. The unit adapted itself to the unknown complexities of overseas missions and fulfilled multiple high-risk tasks. It has become an essential airborne arm of UNAMID and a pillar of the UN peacekeeping operations in Darfur.


(六)设立中国-联合国和平与发展基金支持联合国维和行动
6. China-UN Peace and Development Fund in Support of the UNPKOs


为更好支持联合国和平事业,促进多边合作,中国设立了中国-联合国和平与发展基金。2016年至2019年,中国-联合国和平与发展基金在和平安全领域共开展52个项目,使用资金约3362万美元。其中23个项目涉及支持联合国维和行动,使用资金约1038万美元,包括联合国维和行动统筹规划、非洲维和能力建设、维和人员安保、在苏丹达尔富尔与马里等维和行动中的民生项目等。
To support the UN efforts for peace and advance multilateral cooperation, China has established a China-UN Peace and Development Fund. From 2016 to 2019, the fund financed 52 peace and security projects to a total value of USD33.62 million. Twenty-three of these projects were in support of the UNPKOs, which cost USD10.38 million. The goal of these projects is to strengthen coordination and planning of the UNPKOs, increase African peacekeeping capacity, provide protection for peacekeepers, and improve lives in Sudan's Darfur, Mali and other mission areas.

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