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《中国军队参加联合国维和行动30年》白皮书(双语全文)

新华网 2020-09-18 13:26

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二、中国军队是联合国维和行动的关键力量
II. A Key Force in UNPKOs


30年来,中国军队派出维和官兵的数量和类型全面发展,从最初的军事观察员,发展到工兵分队、医疗分队、运输分队、直升机分队、警卫分队、步兵营等成建制部队以及参谋军官、军事观察员、合同制军官等维和军事专业人员。中国维和官兵的足迹遍布柬埔寨、刚果(金)、利比里亚、苏丹、黎巴嫩、塞浦路斯、南苏丹、马里、中非等20多个国家和地区,在推进和平解决争端、维护地区安全稳定、促进驻在国经济社会发展等方面作出了重要贡献。
Over the past 30 years, China's armed forces have contributed a growing number of peacekeepers across an expanding range of deployments. From a few military observers at the outset of its involvement, China's armed forces are now sending both formed units and military professionals. Chinese military peacekeepers serve on the UN missions in engineer, medical, transport, helicopter, force protection and infantry units, and as staff officers, military observers and seconded officers. Chinese military peacekeepers have left their footprints in over 20 countries and regions including Cambodia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Liberia, Sudan, Lebanon, Cyprus, South Sudan, Mali and the Central African Republic. They have made a tremendous contribution to facilitating the peaceful settlement of disputes, safeguarding regional security and stability, and promoting economic and social development in host nations.


(一)监督停火
1. Ceasefire Supervision


监督停火旨在确保冲突各方履行停火协议,是联合国维和行动的初始职能,也是中国军队承担的首项联合国维和任务。自1990年起,以军事观察员、参谋军官、合同制军官等为代表的中国维和军事专业人员队伍不断发展壮大。30年来,中国军队累计向25个维和特派团及联合国总部派出维和军事专业人员2064人次。迄今,共有13名中国军人担任特派团司令、副司令,战区司令、副司令等重要职务。2020年8月,有84名维和军事专业人员正活跃在维和特派团和联合国总部,主要担负巡逻观察、监督停火、联络谈判、行动指挥、组织计划等任务。
Ceasefires are supervised to ensure that conflicting parties abide by their agreements. It was the earliest function of UN peacekeeping, and the first task undertaken by Chinese military peacekeepers. Since 1990, in addition to military observers, more military professionals have been involved in UN peacekeeping as staff officers and seconded officers. In the past three decades, China's armed forces have sent 2,064 military professionals to 25 missions and UN headquarters (UNHQ). Thirteen of them have been appointed to key positions as force commander, deputy force commander, sector commander, and deputy sector commander. In August 2020, 84 military professionals were working on missions and at UNHQ on patrols, observation, ceasefire supervision, liaison, negotiation, command and control, and operations planning.


军事观察员部署在冲突一线,为维和行动决策提供信息,经常受到武装冲突威胁。2006年7月25日,黎以冲突期间,中国军事观察员杜照宇在炮火中坚守岗位履行职责,为和平事业献出了年轻的生命,被追记一等功,并被联合国授予哈马舍尔德勋章。
Military observers are deployed in conflicts to gather information for decision making. Their lives are often threatened by armed conflicts. On July 25, 2006, during the Israel-Lebanon conflict, Du Zhaoyu, a young Chinese military observer deployed in south Lebanon, bravely remained at his post, fulfilled his duty, and made the ultimate sacrifice for peace. He was posthumously awarded First Class Merit by the Chinese military and the Dag Hammarskjöld Medal by the UN.


(二)稳定局势
2. Stabilizing the Situation


迅速稳定局势是推进和平进程的前提条件,是联合国维和特派团的主要任务,也是近年来中国维和部队职能拓展的重要方向。部分维和任务区安全形势严峻,各类冲突不断,恐怖袭击、暴力骚乱频发。在各类维和分队中,步兵营主要执行武装巡逻、隔离冲突、止暴平暴、警戒搜查等任务,是维和行动的主力军、安全局势的“稳定器”。
Promptly stabilizing the situation paves the way for the peace process. This is a main task of UN peacekeeping missions, and an important area to which Chinese peacekeeping troops have expanded their functions in recent years. The security situation in some mission areas is challenging, marred by frequent conflicts, terrorist attacks and violent riots. Among all peacekeeping units, it is the infantry battalions that are mainly tasked with armed patrol, separating conflicting parties, riot control, cordoning, and search. They are the backbone for UN peacekeeping and the stabilizers of security.


2015年1月,中国军队向联合国南苏丹特派团(联南苏团)派遣1支700人规模的步兵营,这是中国军队首次成建制派遣步兵营赴海外执行维和任务。5年来,中国军队先后向南苏丹派遣6批维和步兵营。迎着朝霞出发、披着星光归营,在枪声中入睡、在炮声中惊醒,这是维和步兵营官兵工作生活的真实写照。截至2020年8月,维和步兵营累计完成长途巡逻51次、短途巡逻93次,武装护卫任务314次,武器禁区巡逻3万余小时,为稳定当地局势发挥了重要作用。2018年8月,南苏丹首都朱巴发生大规模械斗流血事件。中国维和步兵营奉命出击,果断处置,迅速平息事态。
In January 2015, the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) dispatched an infantry battalion of 700 troops to the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS), the first organic unit of its kind to operate overseas in a peacekeeping mission. Over the past five years, six rotations have been committed to UNMISS. The Chinese infantrymen worked day and night amid the rattle of gunfire and the rumble of explosions in the mission area. As of August 2020, these battalions had completed 51 long-range and 93 short-distance patrols, 314 armed escorts, and over 30,000 hours of patrols in weapons-free zones, making a significant contribution to stabilizing the local situation. In August 2018, when a large riot erupted in Juba, capital of South Sudan, the Chinese infantry battalion acted immediately on orders and quelled the violence decisively and promptly.


(三)保护平民
3. Protecting Civilians


保护平民是联合国维和行动的重要内容,也是中国维和官兵义不容辞的责任、义无反顾的抉择。近代以来,中国人民饱受战乱之苦,中国官兵深知和平之宝贵、生命之无价。在战火频仍的维和任务区,中国维和官兵用汗水和青春浇灌美丽的和平之花,用热血和生命撑起一片片和平的蓝天。
The Protection of Civilians (POC) is an important part of the UNPKOs. It is a duty that Chinese military peacekeepers resolutely undertake. The Chinese people suffered immensely from the scourge of war in modern times, and Chinese service members know only too well the value of peace and life. In war-torn mission areas, Chinese military peacekeepers maintain peace with their sweat, youth and lives.


2016年7月,南苏丹首都朱巴爆发武装冲突,政府军和反政府武装持续激战,双方投入坦克、大口径火炮、武装直升机等重型武器,身处交火地域的大量平民生命安全受到严重威胁。中国维和步兵营及友邻部队共同承担辖区内朱巴城区及城郊百余村庄平民的安全保护任务。面对枪林弹雨,中国维和官兵用血肉之躯构筑“生命防线”,阻止武装分子接近平民保护区,守护了9000多名平民的生命安全。执行任务期间,李磊、杨树朋两名战士壮烈牺牲,用生命履行使命,以英勇无畏践行了保护生命、捍卫和平的铮铮誓言,被追记一等功,并被联合国授予哈马舍尔德勋章。
In July 2016, an armed conflict broke out in Juba between government and opposition forces. Heavy weapons including tanks, large-caliber artillery, and armed helicopters were employed by both sides in fierce exchange of fire, putting a large number of civilians in severe danger. The Chinese infantry battalion, together with peacekeepers from other countries, was responsible for protecting civilians in downtown Juba and over a hundred surrounding villages. Facing a raging storm of gunfire and artillery bombardment, the Chinese infantrymen risked their lives to build a defense for life and prevented the militants from approaching the POC camp, and ensured the safety of over 9,000 civilians. Corporal Li Lei and Sergeant Yang Shupeng sacrificed their lives in the action. They lived up to the solemn pledge and sacred obligation of protecting lives and safeguarding peace with bravery and sacrifice. They were posthumously conferred First Class Merit by the Chinese military and the Dag Hammarskjöld Medal by the UN.


(四)安全护卫
4. Providing Force Protection


安全护卫是确保联合国特派团设施和人员安全的重要任务。中国军队作为联合国维和行动的重要参与者,积极派出维和安全部队,为联合国维和行动提供有力的安全保障。
Force protection is vital to securing the personnel and assets of UN peacekeeping missions. As an important contributor to the UNPKOs, China's armed forces have been active in sending in troops to the UN missions to provide reliable force protection.


2013年12月,中国军队向联合国马里多层面综合稳定特派团(联马团)派遣1支170人的警卫分队,承担联马团东战区司令部安全警戒、要员护卫等任务,这是中国军队首次派遣安全部队参与维和行动。马里是联合国最危险的维和任务区之一,自杀式袭击、路边炸弹等恐袭事件屡屡发生。7年来,中国军队先后向马里维和任务区派遣8批警卫分队、官兵1440人次,在危机四伏的撒哈拉沙漠南缘,警卫分队官兵出色完成任务,累计执行武装巡逻及警戒护卫等行动3900余次,被联马团东战区誉为“战区王牌”。2016年5月31日,中国维和士兵申亮亮为阻止载有炸药的恐怖分子车辆冲入联合国维和营地壮烈牺牲,被追记一等功,并被联合国授予哈马舍尔德勋章。中华人民共和国成立70周年之际,申亮亮烈士被授予“人民英雄”国家荣誉称号。
In December 2013, China's armed forces dispatched a force protection unit of 170 troops to the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) to conduct guard duties and VIP protection at the Sector East Headquarters. This was the first time that China's armed forces had dispatched troops to carry out force protection duties for the UNPKOs. Mali is among the most dangerous mission areas, afflicted by frequent suicide attacks, roadside bombs and other terrorist assaults. Over the past seven years, China's armed forces have sent 1,440 troops for force protection in eight rotations to MINUSMA. The units have fulfilled their tasks effectively in the hazardous southern edge of the Sahara Desert, including over 3,900 armed patrols and armed escorts. They have earned themselves the reputation of "des troupes d'élite" of Sector East. On May 31, 2016, First Sergeant Shen Liangliang was killed trying to prevent a terrorist vehicle laden with explosives from crashing into the UN camp. He was posthumously conferred First Class Merit by the Chinese military and the Dag Hammarskjöld Medal by the UN. On the occasion of the 70th anniversary of the founding of the PRC, First Sergeant Shen Liangliang was conferred the national honorary title of People's Hero.


2017年3月12日,南苏丹边境城镇耶伊爆发激烈冲突,7名联合国民事人员被困在交火区域中心,生命安全面临严重威胁。中国赴南苏丹维和步兵营火速派出12名官兵前往救援。行进途中险情不断,救援官兵临危不惧,与武装分子斗智斗勇,3次突破拦截,成功将全部被困民事人员安全转移。此次救援行动及时高效,被联南苏团作为解救行动成功范例加以推广。
On March 12, 2017, an intense conflict broke out in Yei, a border town in South Sudan. Seven UN civilian staff were caught in the crossfire and they were at severe risk of losing their lives. The Chinese infantry battalion immediately sent in 12 officers and soldiers to the rescue. Despite threats and dangers in their way, they outmaneuvered the militants, defeated three interception attempts, and successfully evacuated the trapped personnel. This timely and efficient operation was hailed and publicized as an exemplary model of rescue operations by UNMISS.


(五)支援保障
5. Deploying Enabling Capabilities


工程、运输、医疗、直升机等后勤保障分队在联合国维和行动中扮演着不可或缺的重要角色,是当前中国军队向海外派遣维和部队的主体。在各维和任务区,中国后勤保障分队官兵以过硬的素质、精湛的技能和敬业的精神,创造了“中国质量”“中国速度”“中国标准”等一块块闪亮的中国品牌。
Force enablers such as engineer, transport, medical, and helicopter units play an irreplaceable role in the UNPKOs. Currently, the majority of Chinese peacekeeping troops perform such enabling tasks. On UN peacekeeping missions, Chinese military peacekeepers in the logistic support units have become the embodiment of China's quality, speed and standards through their skills, professionalism and dedication.


2020年1月,联马团北战区泰萨利特维和营地遭到恐怖袭击,造成20多人受伤。部署在东战区的中国医疗分队紧急前出,将7名乍得维和部队伤员接回至中国医疗分队。经过全力抢救,所有伤员转危为安。2020年5月,中国维和工兵分队克服新冠肺炎疫情防控压力大、安全形势严峻等不利因素,高标准、高质量完成南苏丹西部索普桥修建,打通瓦乌至拉加线路,赢得当地政府和人民的高度评价和赞誉。
In January 2020, some terrorists attacked the Tessalit Camp in the Sector North of MINUSMA and wounded more than 20 people. The Chinese medical unit in Sector East was rushed in by air and evacuated seven injured Chad peacekeepers to the Chinese medical camp. All the wounded were saved by prompt emergency treatment. In May 2020, despite the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and a tense security situation, the Chinese engineer unit built a bridge over the Sopo River in South Sudan to the highest quality standards. This bridge created a transport route between Wau and Raga, which was highly commended by the local government and residents.


30年来,中国军队先后向柬埔寨、刚果(金)、利比里亚、苏丹、黎巴嫩、苏丹达尔富尔、南苏丹、马里8个维和任务区派遣111支工兵分队25768人次,累计新建和修复道路1.7万多千米、桥梁300多座,排除地雷及未爆炸物1.4万余枚,完成大量平整场地、维修机场、搭建板房、构筑防御工事等工程保障任务;先后向利比里亚、苏丹2个任务区派遣27支运输分队5164人次,累计运送物资器材120万余吨,运输总里程1300万余千米;先后向刚果(金)、利比里亚、苏丹、黎巴嫩、南苏丹、马里6个任务区派遣85支医疗分队4259人次,累计接诊救治病人、抢救伤员24.6万余人次;向苏丹达尔富尔派遣3支直升机分队420人次,累计飞行1602架次、1951小时,运送人员10410人次、物资480余吨。
In the past 30 years, China's armed forces have contributed 111 engineer units totaling 25,768 troops to eight UN peacekeeping missions in Cambodia, the DRC, Liberia, Sudan, Lebanon, Sudan's Darfur, South Sudan, and Mali. These units have built and rehabilitated more than 17,000 kilometers of roads and 300 bridges, disposed of 14,000 landmines and unexploded ordnance, and performed a large number of engineering tasks including leveling ground, renovating airports, assembling prefabricated houses, and building defense works. Twenty-seven transport units totaling 5,164 troops were dispatched to the UN peacekeeping missions in Liberia and Sudan. They transported over 1.2 million tons of materials and equipment over a total distance of more than 13 million kilometers. Eighty-five medical units of 4,259 troops were sent to six UN peacekeeping missions in the DRC, Liberia, Sudan, Lebanon, South Sudan, and Mali. They have provided medical services to over 246,000 sick and wounded people. Three helicopter units totaling 420 troops were sent to Sudan's Darfur. They completed 1,951 flight hours, transported 10,410 passengers and over 480 tons of cargo in 1,602 sorties.


(六)播撒希望
6. Sowing the Seeds of Hope


过上幸福美好生活,是各国人民的共同期盼。远赴海外的中国维和官兵用实际行动,为遭受战火摧残的人民带去了和平、点亮了希望。
It is the common aspiration of all peoples throughout the world to live a better life. Far from home, Chinese military peacekeepers have made concrete efforts to bring peace and hope to war-afflicted peoples.


积极协助开展人道主义救援。30年来,中国维和部队与国际人道主义机构携手,积极参与难民安置、救济粮发放、难民营修建和抢险救灾等行动,开展了大量卓有成效的工作。2020年4月,刚果(金)东部乌维拉地区暴发罕见洪灾,人民生命财产安全面临严重威胁,中国工兵分队临危受命,紧急加固堤坝、修复被毁桥梁,打通生命通道,有力保护当地人民安全。
To actively facilitate humanitarian assistance. Over the past 30 years, China's peacekeeping troops worked extensively and effectively with international humanitarian agencies, and have played an active role in resettling refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs), distributing food, building refugee and IDP camps, and carrying out disaster relief tasks. In April 2020, Uvira in eastern DRC was struck by a rare flood, which posed a severe threat to the lives and property of the locals. The Chinese engineer unit was assigned to disaster relief work at the most critical moment and rushed to help reinforce levees and restore damaged bridges. They have given the locals access to help and protection, and effectively ensured the safety and security of the affected population.


广泛参与战后重建。战乱国家或地区签署和平协议后,帮助其恢复社会秩序、改善民生,是防止冲突再起、实现持久和平与稳定的治本之策。中国维和部队积极参与驻地战后重建进程,承担重要基础设施援建、协助监督选举、医护人员培训及环境保护等任务,得到驻在国政府和人民的积极评价。苏丹达尔富尔地区地处沙漠边缘、地质结构复杂,是世界上极度贫水地区之一,2007年至2013年期间,中国工兵分队给水官兵克服重重困难,先后在当地打井14口,有效缓解当地人民的饮水难题。
To participate extensively in post-conflict reconstruction. In a post-war country or region, when a peace agreement is reached, it is essential to restore livelihoods and social order in order to prevent the recurrence of conflict and achieve lasting peace and stability. Chinese peacekeeping troops have played an active role in post-conflict reconstruction of host nations. They built important infrastructure, monitored elections, trained local doctors and nurses, and promoted environmental protection. Their efforts have been acclaimed by the governments and peoples of host nations. Darfur lies on the edge of a desert with complex geology. It is one of the regions afflicted by the world's most severe water shortages. From 2007 to 2013, Chinese military engineers drilled 14 wells in the most difficult circumstances, and effectively alleviated the problem of water scarcity for the locals.


传递温暖和爱心。中国维和官兵不仅是和平的守护人,也是友谊的传播者。中国赴刚果(金)医疗分队与驻地布卡武市“国际儿童村”结成对子,用真情传递爱心和温暖,中国女官兵被孩子们亲切称作“中国妈妈”,这一爱心接力棒已经接续了17年,在当地传为佳话。中国赴南苏丹维和部队向当地人民传授农业技术、赠送农具菜种,并应邀到当地中学开设中国文化和汉语课程,深受学生们欢迎。
To pass on love and care. Chinese military peacekeepers are not only guardians of peace but also messengers of friendship. The Chinese medical units in the DRC ran a twinning project in SOS Children's Village Bukavu to offer help. Touched by the love and care from the units, children in the village called the female members their Chinese mothers. The consistent efforts of the Chinese units over the past 17 years have won widespread praise from the locals. In UNMISS, Chinese military peacekeepers provided agricultural techniques, farming tools and vegetable seeds to local people. They were invited by local middle schools to teach lessons on Chinese culture and language, which were very popular with the students.


30年来,中国军队先后参加25项联合国维和行动,累计派出维和官兵4万余人次,16名中国官兵为了和平事业献出了宝贵生命。2020年8月,2521名中国官兵正在8个维和特派团和联合国总部执行任务。中国女性维和官兵在维和行动中发挥了越来越重要的作用,先后有1000余名女性官兵参与医疗保障、联络协调、扫雷排爆、巡逻观察、促进性别平等、妇女儿童保护等工作,展示了中国女性的巾帼风采。中国维和部队的出色表现,受到联合国高度认可,赢得国际社会广泛赞赏,为国家和军队赢得了荣誉。2019年10月1日,中国维和部队方队首次在国庆阅兵中接受祖国和人民检阅。
Over the past 30 years, China's armed forces have contributed more than 40,000 service members to 25 UN peacekeeping missions. Sixteen Chinese military peacekeepers have sacrificed their lives for the noble cause of peace. As of August 2020, 2,521 Chinese military peacekeepers were serving on eight UN peacekeeping missions and at UNHQ. Chinese service women are playing an increasingly important role in peacekeeping. More than 1,000 female peacekeepers have worked in medical support, liaison, coordination, demining, explosive ordnance disposal, patrol, observation, gender equality promotion, protecting women and children, and other fields. They demonstrated the talent and professionalism of Chinese women on their UN missions. Chinese peacekeeping troops have been commended by the UN and the international community for their contribution. They have won honor for their country and military. On October 1st, 2019, Chinese military peacekeepers were reviewed for the first time by the country and the people in the parade celebrating the 70th anniversary of the PRC.

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