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《中国军队参加联合国维和行动30年》白皮书(双语全文)

新华网 2020-09-18 13:26

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四、中国军队积极推动维和国际合作
IV. Active Efforts for Greater International Cooperation


世界和平需要各国共同维护,维和行动需要多方加强合作。中国军队先后与90多个国家、10多个国际和地区组织开展维和交流与合作,通过团组互访、专家交流、联演联训、人员培训等形式增进相互了解,交流经验做法,加强务实合作,密切双多边关系,不断提升维和能力。
World peace is the responsibility of all countries and peacekeeping calls for expanding multilateral cooperation. China's armed forces have cooperated on peacekeeping with over 90 countries and 10 international and regional organizations. They have enhanced mutual understanding, shared experience, extended practical cooperation, strengthened bilateral and multilateral relations, and promoted peacekeeping capability through exchange of visits, expert discussions, joint exercises and training, and personnel training.


(一)加强战略沟通,凝聚维和共识
1. Strengthening Strategic Communication to Build Consensus on Peacekeeping


加强与联合国高层的战略沟通,是联合国维和行动向前发展的重要途径。2012年以来,习近平主席11次会见联合国秘书长,在多个国际场合就世界和平与发展提出中国主张、中国方案,表达支持联合国维和行动的立场。2015年,习近平主席出席联合国维和峰会,提出恪守维和基本原则、完善维和行动体系、提高快速反应水平、加大对非洲的帮扶等主张。中国军队坚决贯彻落实领导人达成的共识,加强与联合国相关机构密切沟通,多次参加联合国维和部长级会议、联合国维和出兵国参谋长会议,积极推动维和领域合作。
Better strategic communication with the UN leadership is an important means to move the UNPKOs forward. Since 2012, President Xi Jinping has had 11 meetings with UN Secretary-Generals, proposed Chinese ideas and Chinese solutions for world peace and development on multiple international occasions, and reiterated China's support for the UNPKOs. In 2015, President Xi Jinping attended the Leaders' Summit on Peacekeeping at UNHQ and presented proposals that the basic principles of peacekeeping should be strictly followed, the peacekeeping system needs to be improved, rapid response needs to be enhanced, and greater support and help should be given to Africa. Accordingly, China's armed forces are resolved to implement the consensus reached by the leaders. They have strengthened communication with relevant UN agencies, attended several sessions of the UN Peacekeeping Defense Ministerial and the UN Chiefs of Defense Conference, and actively promoted peacekeeping cooperation.


加强双多边沟通交流,增进理解互信。中国军队与俄罗斯、巴基斯坦、柬埔寨、印尼、越南、法国、德国、英国、美国等国军队在维和领域积极开展互访,加强政策沟通,规划维和合作,助推两国两军友好关系发展。2010年5月,首次中美维和事务磋商在北京举行。2015年4月,中国与越南两国国防部长在北京签署两国国防部维和领域合作备忘录;同年,中国同巴西、俄罗斯、印度、南非首次举行金砖国家维和事务磋商。2017年2月,首次中英维和事务磋商在英国举行。2018年4月,联合国军事参谋团的俄、法、英、美军事代表访华,同中方就维和行动进行广泛交流;5月,中国与巴基斯坦签署维和行动政策合作议定书;10月,德国国防部长参访中国国防部维和事务中心培训基地,中国国防部维和代表团参访德国国防军联合国中心。
China's armed forces are committed to strengthening bilateral and multilateral communication for better understanding and mutual trust. They have carried out active peacekeeping cooperation with the militaries of countries including Russia, Pakistan, Cambodia, Indonesia, Vietnam, France, Germany, the UK, and the US. Through reciprocal visits, China's armed forces and their foreign counterparts have strengthened communication on policies, made cooperation plans, and advanced friendly state-to-state and military-to-military relations. In May 2010, the first China-US consultation on the UNPKOs was held in Beijing. In April 2015, the defense ministers of China and Vietnam signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) on peacekeeping cooperation between the two ministries in Beijing. That same year, China conducted the first BRICS consultation on the UNPKOs with Brazil, Russia, India and South Africa. In February 2017, the first China-UK dialogue on peacekeeping operations was held in the UK. In April 2018, military advisers of Russia, France, the UK and the US to the UN Military Staff Committee visited China and exchanged extensive views on the UNPKOs with the Chinese side. In May, the defense ministries of China and Pakistan signed a protocol on policy collaboration with regard to the UNPKOs. In October, the German defense minister visited the Training Base of the Peacekeeping Affairs Center of the Chinese Ministry of National Defense (MND), and a peacekeeping delegation from the Chinese MND visited the German Armed Forces United Nations Training Centre.


(二)分享经验做法,贡献中国智慧
2. Contributing Chinese Wisdom and Sharing Experience


相互学习借鉴,开展经验交流,是改进联合国维和行动的有效方式。中国军队积极开展维和领域国际交流,派出维和专业团组访问阿根廷、芬兰、德国等国军队维和培训机构。180余次接待各国和联合国、非盟等国际组织代表团参观访问。举办“中英维和研讨会”“21世纪和平行动面临的挑战国际研讨会”“中国-东盟维和研讨会”“2009北京国际维和研讨会”等10多项大型维和国际研讨活动。在马里、苏丹、南苏丹、刚果(金)、利比里亚、黎巴嫩的中国维和部队与法国、塞内加尔、西班牙等国维和部队交流分享经验做法。
Sharing experience and learning from each other is an effective approach to improving the UNPKOs. China's armed forces have actively conducted international exchanges on peacekeeping. The PLA sent delegations to visit the peacekeeping training facilities of countries including Argentina, Finland and Germany, and received more than 180 visits from other countries and international organizations including the UN and the AU. China has hosted over ten international events on peacekeeping, including the Sino-UK Seminar on Peacekeeping Operations, the International Seminar on Challenges of Peace Operations -- Into the 21st Century, the China-ASEAN Seminar on Peacekeeping Operations, and the 2009 Beijing International Symposium on UN Peacekeeping Operations. Meanwhile, Chinese peacekeeping troops in Mali, Sudan, South Sudan, the DRC, Liberia, and Lebanon have exchanged experience with their counterparts from France, Senegal and Spain.


中国军队广泛参与联合国维和专题审议和政策制定,为维和行动发展贡献智慧。积极参加联大维和特委会、出兵国自携装备会议,邀请联合国维和行动高级别评审专家组、安理会代表团访华,就联合国维和行动改革、提高维和行动效能、保障维和人员安全等建言献策;组织《联合国维和工兵分队手册》《联合国维和军事情报手册》等专家编审国际会议,派专家参加联合国维和步兵、警卫、航空、运输、卫勤、军民合作等指导手册编写修订。
China's armed forces have participated extensively in UN peacekeeping consultations and policy-making, and provided input on the UNPKOs. They have played a dynamic role in the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations of the UN General Assembly and the TCC Contingent-Owned Equipment (COE) Working Group, invited officials from the UN High-level Independent Panel on Peace Operations and the UN Security Council to China, and offered suggestions on reforming UN peacekeeping, raising its effectiveness, and ensuring the safety and security of peacekeepers. Expert meetings have been hosted by China to draft and review documents including the United Nations Peacekeeping Missions Military Engineer Unit Manual and the Military Peacekeeping-Intelligence Handbook, and Chinese experts have been sent to participate in updating the manuals of UN peacekeeping infantry, force protection, aviation, transport, medical support units and civil-military cooperation.


(三)深化联演联训,共同提升能力
3. Extending Cooperation on Joint Exercises and Training to Build Capability


开展维和领域联演联训,是提升遂行联合国维和行动任务能力,培养储备维和人才的重要举措。中国军队通过多种形式,与联合国、有关国家和地区组织开展维和演训活动,相互借鉴,共同提高。2009年6月至7月,中国与蒙古国在北京举办“维和使命-2009”联合训练;2014年2月,派员赴菲律宾参加东盟10+8多国维和桌面推演;2015年至2019年,每年派实兵赴蒙古国参加“可汗探索”多国维和演习;2016年3月、2019年9月,分别派实兵赴印度、印尼参加东盟10+8维和与人道主义扫雷行动联合演习;2016年5月、2018年5月,两次派员赴泰国参加多国维和桌面推演;2018年4月派员赴巴西参加“维京”多国模拟指挥所推演。
Joint exercises and training are important as a means of improving the UN's peacekeeping capability and its talent pool. To learn from each other and improve skills, China's armed forces have conducted various peacekeeping exercises and training with the UN, and with relevant countries and regional organizations. In June and July 2009, China and Mongolia held a joint exercise codenamed Peacekeeping Mission-2009 in Beijing. In addition, China's armed forces have sent military personnel to participate in multilateral engagements including the ADMM-Plus Experts' Working Group Table-Top Exercise on Peacekeeping Operations in the Philippines in February 2014, the Khan Quest multinational peacekeeping exercises in Mongolia from 2015 to 2019, the ADMM-Plus Experts' Working Group on Peacekeeping Operations and Humanitarian Mine Action field training exercises in India in March 2016 and in Indonesia in September 2019, peacekeeping table-top exercises in Thailand in May 2016 and May 2018, and the multinational computer-assisted command-post exercise Viking 18 in Brazil in April 2018.


2009年6月中国军队组建维和专业培训机构以来,举办联合国军事观察员、联合国维和参谋军官、联合国非洲法语区维和教官、联合国维和行动规划管理等各类国际培训班20余期。积极邀请联合国专家和有关国家资深教官来华授课交流,强化维和部队和维和军事专业人员部署前培训。先后派维和教官赴澳大利亚、德国、荷兰、瑞士、泰国、越南等国维和培训机构施训,派出100多名军官参加联合国及各出兵国举办的维和培训或观摩。
China's armed forces established a specialized peacekeeping training institution in June 2009. Since then, the PLA has run over 20 international training programs for UN peacekeepers, including the UN Military Observers Course, the UN Staff Officers Course, the UN Peacekeeping Training of Trainers Course for Francophone Countries, and the UN Senior National Planners Course. The PLA has also invited UN experts and senior instructors from other countries for pre-deployment training of Chinese peacekeeping troops and military professionals, and sent instructors to assist peacekeeping training in countries including Australia, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Thailand, and Vietnam. More than 100 PLA officers have attended courses or observed exercises hosted by the UN or other TCCs.

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