首页  | 权威发布

《2021中国的航天》白皮书(双语全文)

中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室 2022-01-29 14:09

分享到微信

2021中国的航天

中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室

(2022年1月)

China's Space Program: A 2021 Perspective

The State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China

January 2022

 

目录

前言

一、开启全面建设航天强国新征程

(一)发展宗旨

(二)发展愿景

(三)发展原则

二、发展空间技术与系统

(一)航天运输系统

(二)空间基础设施

(三)载人航天

(四)深空探测

(五)发射场与测控

(六)新技术试验

(七)空间环境治理

三、培育壮大空间应用产业

(一)卫星公益服务

(二)空间应用产业

四、开展空间科学探索与研究

(一)空间科学探索

(二)空间环境下的科学实验

五、推进航天治理现代化

(一)持续提升航天创新能力

(二)强化航天工业基础能力

(三)加快发展空间应用产业

(四)鼓励引导商业航天发展

(五)积极推进法治航天建设

(六)建设高水平航天人才队伍

(七)大力开展航天科普教育和文化建设

六、构建航天国际合作新格局

(一)基本政策

(二)主要进展

(三)未来合作重点

结束语

前言

习近平总书记指出,“探索浩瀚宇宙,发展航天事业,建设航天强国,是我们不懈追求的航天梦。”中国始终把发展航天事业作为国家整体发展战略的重要组成部分,始终坚持为和平目的探索和利用外层空间。

2016年以来,中国航天进入创新发展“快车道”,空间基础设施建设稳步推进,北斗全球卫星导航系统建成开通,高分辨率对地观测系统基本建成,卫星通信广播服务能力稳步增强,探月工程“三步走”圆满收官,中国空间站建设全面开启,“天问一号”实现从地月系到行星际探测的跨越,取得了举世瞩目的辉煌成就。

未来五年,中国航天将立足新发展阶段,贯彻新发展理念,构建新发展格局,按照高质量发展要求,推动空间科学、空间技术、空间应用全面发展,开启全面建设航天强国新征程,为服务国家发展大局、在外空领域推动构建人类命运共同体、促进人类文明进步作出更大贡献。

为介绍2016年以来中国航天活动主要进展、未来五年主要任务,进一步增进国际社会对中国航天事业的了解,特发布本白皮书。

Preamble

"To explore the vast cosmos, develop the space industry and build China into a space power is our eternal dream," stated President Xi Jinping. The space industry is a critical element of the overall national strategy, and China upholds the principle of exploration and utilization of outer space for peaceful purposes.

Since 2016, China's space industry has made rapid and innovative progress, manifested by a steady improvement in space infrastructure, the completion and operation of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, the completion of the high-resolution earth observation system, steady improvement of the service ability of satellite communications and broadcasting, the conclusion of the last step of the three-step lunar exploration program ("orbit, land, and return"), the first stages in building the space station, and a smooth interplanetary voyage and landing beyond the earth-moon system by Tianwen-1, followed by the exploration of Mars. These achievements have attracted worldwide attention.

In the next five years, China will integrate space science, technology and applications while pursuing the new development philosophy, building a new development model and meeting the requirements for high-quality development. It will start a new journey towards a space power. The space industry will contribute more to China's growth as a whole, to global consensus and common effort with regard to outer space exploration and utilization, and to human progress.

We are publishing this white paper to offer a brief introduction to China's major achievements in this field since 2016 and its main tasks in the next five years, in order to help the international community better understand China's space industry.

 

一、开启全面建设航天强国新征程

(一)发展宗旨

探索外层空间,扩展对地球和宇宙的认识;和平利用外层空间,维护外层空间安全,在外空领域推动构建人类命运共同体,造福全人类;满足经济建设、科技发展、国家安全和社会进步等方面的需求,提高全民科学文化素质,维护国家权益,增强综合国力。

(二)发展愿景

全面建成航天强国,持续提升科学认知太空能力、自由进出太空能力、高效利用太空能力、有效治理太空能力,成为国家安全的维护者、科技自立自强的引领者、经济社会高质量发展的推动者、外空科学治理的倡导者和人类文明发展的开拓者,为建设社会主义现代化强国、推动人类和平与发展的崇高事业作出积极贡献。

(三)发展原则

中国发展航天事业服从和服务于国家整体发展战略,坚持创新引领、协同高效、和平发展、合作共享的原则,推动航天高质量发展。

——创新引领。坚持创新在航天事业发展中的核心地位,建强航天领域国家战略科技力量,实施航天重大科技工程,强化原创引领的科技创新,持续优化创新生态,加快产品化进程,不断提升航天自主发展能力和安全发展能力。

——协同高效。坚持系统观念,更好发挥新型举国体制优势,引导各方力量有序参与航天发展,科学统筹部署航天活动,强化空间技术对空间科学、空间应用的推动牵引作用,培育壮大新模式新业态,提升航天发展的质量效益和整体效能。

——和平发展。始终坚持和平利用外层空间,反对外空武器化、战场化和外空军备竞赛,合理开发和利用空间资源,切实保护空间环境,维护一个和平、清洁的外层空间,使航天活动造福全人类。

——合作共享。坚持独立自主与开放合作相结合,深化高水平国际交流与合作,拓展航天技术和产品全球公共服务,积极参与解决人类面临的重大挑战,助力联合国2030年可持续发展议程目标实现,在外空领域推动构建人类命运共同体。

I. A New Journey Towards a Strong Space Presence

1. Mission

The mission of China's space program is: to explore outer space to expand humanity's understanding of the earth and the cosmos; to facilitate global consensus on our shared responsibility in utilizing outer space for peaceful purposes and safeguarding its security for the benefit of all humanity; to meet the demands of economic, scientific and technological development, national security and social progress; and to raise the scientific and cultural levels of the Chinese people, protect China's national rights and interests, and build up its overall strength.

2. Vision

China aims to strengthen its space presence in an all-round manner: to enhance its capacity to better understand, freely access, efficiently use, and effectively manage space; to defend national security, lead self-reliance and self-improvement efforts in science and technology, and promote high-quality economic and social development; to advocate sound and efficient governance of outer space, and pioneer human progress; and to make a positive contribution to China's socialist modernization and to peace and progress for all humanity.

3. Principles

China's space industry is subject to and serves the overall national strategy. China adheres to the principles of innovation-driven, coordinated, efficient, and peaceful progress based on cooperation and sharing to ensure a high-quality space industry.

- Innovation-driven development

China puts innovation at the core of its space industry. It boosts state strategic scientific and technological strength in the space industry, implements major space programs, strengthens original innovation, optimizes the environment for innovation, achieves industrial production as early as possible, and grows China's independent capacity to build a safe space industry.

- Coordination and efficiency

China adopts a holistic approach in building its space industry. It mobilizes and guides different sectors to take part in and contribute to this key industry, and coordinates all relevant activities under an overall plan. It ensures that technology plays a greater role in promoting and guiding space science and applications, and it facilitates the growth of new forms and models of business for the industry. These measures aim to raise the quality and overall performance of China's space industry.

- For peaceful purposes

China has always advocated the use of outer space for peaceful purposes, and opposes any attempt to turn outer space into a weapon or battlefield or launch an arms race in outer space. China develops and utilizes space resources in a prudent manner, takes effective measures to protect the space environment, ensures that space remains peaceful and clean, and guarantees that its space activities benefit humanity.

- Cooperation and sharing

China always combines independence and self-reliance with opening to the outside world. It actively engages in high-level international exchanges and cooperation, and expands global public services for space technology and products. It takes an active part in solving major challenges facing humanity, helps to realize the goals of the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and facilitates global consensus and common effort with regard to outer space exploration and utilization.

 

二、发展空间技术与系统

中国航天面向世界科技前沿和国家重大战略需求,以航天重大工程为牵引,加快关键核心技术攻关和应用,大力发展空间技术与系统,全面提升进出、探索、利用和治理空间能力,推动航天可持续发展。

II. Development of Space Technology and Systems

China's space industry serves its major strategic needs, and targets cutting-edge technology that leads the world. Spearheaded by the major space projects, the country has accelerated research into core technologies, stepped up their application, and redoubled its efforts to develop space technology and systems. As a result, China's capacity to enter and return from space, and its ability to engage in space exploration, utilization and governance have grown markedly along a sustainable path.

 

(一)航天运输系统

2016年以来,截至2021年12月,共完成207次发射任务,其中长征系列运载火箭发射共完成183次,总发射次数突破400次。长征系列运载火箭加速向无毒、无污染、模块化、智慧化方向升级换代,“长征五号”“长征五号乙”运载火箭实现应用发射,“长征八号”“长征七号甲”实现首飞,运载能力持续增强。运载火箭多样化发射服务能力迈上新台阶,“长征十一号”实现海上商业化应用发射,“捷龙一号”“快舟一号甲”“双曲线一号”“谷神星一号”等商业运载火箭成功发射。可重复使用运载器飞行演示验证试验取得成功。

未来五年,中国将持续提升航天运输系统综合性能,加速实现运载火箭升级换代。推动运载火箭型谱发展,研制发射新一代载人运载火箭和大推力固体运载火箭,加快推动重型运载火箭工程研制。持续开展重复使用航天运输系统关键技术攻关和演示验证。面向航班化发射需求,发展新型火箭发动机、组合动力、上面级等技术,拓展多样化便利进出空间能力。

1. Space Transport System

From 2016 to December 2021, 207 launch missions were completed, including 183 by the Long March carrier rocket series. The total launch attempts exceeded 400.

The Long March carrier rockets are being upgraded towards non-toxic and pollution-free launch, and they are becoming smarter boosted by modular technology. The Long March-5 and Long March-5B carrier rockets have been employed for regular launches; Long March-8 and Long March-7A have made their maiden flights, with increased payload capacity.

China now provides a variety of launch vehicle services. The Long March-11 carrier rocket has achieved commercial launch from the sea; the Smart Dragon-1, Kuaizhou-1A, Hyperbola-1, CERES-1 and other commercial vehicles have been successfully launched; successful demonstration flight tests on reusable launch vehicles have been carried out.

In the next five years, China will continue to improve the capacity and performance of its space transport system, and move faster to upgrade launch vehicles. It will further expand the launch vehicle family, send into space new-generation manned carrier rockets and high-thrust solid-fuel carrier rockets, and speed up the R&D of heavy-lift launch vehicles. It will continue to strengthen research into key technologies for reusable space transport systems, and conduct test flights accordingly. In response to the growing need for regular launches, China will develop new rocket engines, combined cycle propulsion, and upper stage technologies to improve its capacity to enter and return from space, and make space entry and exit more efficient.

 

(二)空间基础设施

卫星遥感系统。高分辨率对地观测系统天基部分基本建成,对地观测迈进高空间分辨率、高时间分辨率、高光谱分辨率时代。陆地观测业务服务综合能力大幅提升,成功发射“资源三号”03星、“环境减灾二号”A/B星、高分多模综合成像卫星、高光谱观测卫星以及多颗商业遥感卫星等。海洋观测实现全球海域多要素、多尺度、高分辨率连续覆盖,成功发射“海洋一号”C/D星、“海洋二号”B/C/D星。大气全球化、精细化综合观测能力实现跃升,成功发射新一代静止轨道气象卫星“风云四号”A/B星,实现全天候、精细化、连续大气立体综合探测和快速响应灾害监测,成功发射“风云三号”D/E星,形成上午、下午、晨昏星业务组网观测能力,成功发射“风云二号”H星,为“一带一路”沿线国家和地区提供卫星监测服务。遥感卫星地面系统进一步完善,基本具备卫星遥感数据全球接收、快速处理与业务化服务能力。

卫星通信广播系统。固定通信广播卫星系统建设稳步推进,覆盖区域、通信容量等性能进一步提升,成功发射“中星”6C、“中星”9B等卫星,支持广播电视业务连续稳定运行;成功发射“中星”16、“亚太”6D卫星,单星通信容量达到50Gbps,中国卫星通信进入“高通量”时代。移动通信广播卫星系统逐步完善,成功发射“天通一号”02/03星,与“天通一号”01星组网运行,具备为中国及周边、亚太部分地区手持终端用户提供语音、短消息和数据等移动通信服务能力。中继卫星系统建设迈入升级换代新阶段,成功发射“天链一号”05星和“天链二号”01星,综合性能大幅提升。卫星通信广播地面系统持续完善,形成全球覆盖天地融合的卫星通信广播、互联网、物联网及信息服务能力。

卫星导航系统。北斗三号全球卫星导航系统全面建成开通,完成30颗卫星发射组网,北斗系统“三步走”战略圆满完成,正式进入服务全球新时代。北斗系统具备定位导航授时、全球短报文通信、区域短报文通信、国际搜救、星基增强、地基增强、精密单点定位共七类服务能力,服务性能达到世界先进水平。

未来五年,中国将持续完善国家空间基础设施,推动遥感、通信、导航卫星融合技术发展,加快提升泛在通联、精准时空、全维感知的空间信息服务能力。研制静止轨道微波探测、新一代海洋水色、陆地生态系统碳监测、大气环境监测等卫星,发展双天线X波段干涉合成孔径雷达、陆地水资源等卫星技术,形成综合高效的全球对地观测和数据获取能力。推动构建高低轨协同的卫星通信系统,开展新型通信卫星技术验证与商业应用,建设第二代数据中继卫星系统。开展下一代北斗卫星导航系统导航通信融合、低轨增强等深化研究和技术攻关,推动构建更加泛在、更加融合、更加智能的国家综合定位导航授时(PNT)体系。持续完善卫星遥感、通信、导航地面系统。

2. Space Infrastructure

(1) Satellite remote-sensing system

The space-based section of the China High-resolution Earth Observation System has been largely completed, enabling high-spatial-resolution, high-temporal-resolution and high-spectrum-resolution earth observation. China now provides improved land observation services, having launched the Ziyuan-3 03 earth resources satellite, the Huanjing Jianzai-2A/2B satellites for environmental disaster management, a high-resolution multi-mode imaging satellite, a hyper-spectral observation satellite, and a number of commercial remote-sensing satellites.

In ocean observation, China is now able to view multiple indexes of contiguous waters around the globe on all scales, with high-resolution images from the Haiyang-1C/1D satellites and the Haiyang-2B/2C/2D satellites.

China's ability to observe the global atmosphere has achieved a significant increase. Its new-generation Fengyun-4A/4B meteorological satellites in the geostationary orbit are able to perform all-weather, precise and uninterrupted atmospheric monitoring and disaster monitoring to boost response capability. The successful launches of Fengyun-3D/3E satellites enable coordinated morning, afternoon and twilight monitoring, and the Fengyun-2H satellite provides monitoring services for countries and regions participating in the Belt and Road Initiative.

With further improvements to the ground system of its remote-sensing satellites, China is now able to provide remote-sensing satellite data receiving and quick processing services across the world.

(2) Satellite communications and broadcasting system

China has made steady progress in developing fixed communications and broadcasting satellite network, which now covers more areas with greater capacity. The Zhongxing-6C and Zhongxing-9B satellites ensure the uninterrupted, stable operation of broadcasting and television services. The Zhongxing-16 and APSTAR-6D satellites, each with a 50Gbps capacity, signify that satellite communications in China have reached the stage of high-capacity service.

The mobile communications and broadcasting satellite network has expanded with the launch of the Tiantong-1 02/03 satellites, operating in tandem with the Tiantong-1 01 satellite, to provide voice, short message and data services for hand-held terminal users in China, its neighboring areas, and certain parts of the Asia-Pacific.

The relay satellite system is being upgraded with the launch of the Tianlian-1 05 and Tianlian-2 01 satellites, giving a powerful boost to capacity.

The satellite communications and broadcasting ground system has been improved, to form a space-ground integrated network that provides satellite communications and broadcasting, internet, Internet of Things, and information services around the globe.

(3) Satellite navigation system

The completion and operation of the 30-satellite BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS-3) represents the successful conclusion of the system's three-step strategy and its capacity to serve the world. BeiDou's world-leading services include positioning, navigation, timing, regional and global short-message communication, global search and rescue, ground-based and satellite-based augmentation, and precise point positioning.

In the next five years, China will continue to improve its space infrastructure, and integrate remote-sensing, communications, navigation, and positioning satellite technologies. It will:

· Upgrade its spatial information services featuring extensive connection, precise timing and positioning, and all dimension sensoring;

· Develop satellites for geostationary microwave monitoring, new-type ocean color observation, carbon monitoring of the territorial ecosystem, and atmospheric environmental monitoring;

· Develop dual-antenna X-band interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), land water resources and other satellite technology, for efficient, comprehensive earth observation and data acquisition across the globe;

· Build a satellite communications network with high and low orbit coordination, test new communications satellites for commercial application, and build a second-generation data relay satellite system;

· Study and research navigation-communications integration, low-orbit augmentation and other key technologies for the next-generation BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, and develop a more extensive, more integrated and smarter national positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) system;

· Continue to improve the ground systems for remote-sensing, communications and navigation satellites.

(三)载人航天

“天舟一号”货运飞船成功发射并与“天宫二号”空间实验室成功交会对接,突破并掌握货物运输、推进剂在轨补加等关键技术,载人航天工程第二步圆满收官。“天和”核心舱成功发射,标志着中国空间站建造进入全面实施阶段。“天舟二号”“天舟三号”货运飞船和“神舟十二号”“神舟十三号”载人飞船成功发射,先后与“天和”核心舱快速对接,形成空间站组合体并稳定运行,6名航天员先后进驻中国空间站,实施出舱活动、舱外操作、在轨维护、科学实验等任务。

未来五年,中国将继续实施载人航天工程,发射“问天”实验舱、“梦天”实验舱、“巡天”空间望远镜以及“神舟”载人飞船和“天舟”货运飞船,全面建成并运营中国空间站,打造国家太空实验室,开展航天员长期驻留、大规模空间科学实验、空间站平台维护等工作。深化载人登月方案论证,组织开展关键技术攻关,研制新一代载人飞船,夯实载人探索开发地月空间基础。

3. Manned Spaceflight

The Tianzhou-1 cargo spacecraft has docked with the earth-orbiting Tiangong-2 space laboratory. With breakthroughs in key technologies for cargo transport and in-orbit propellant replenishment, China has successfully completed the second phase of its manned spaceflight project.

The launch of the Tianhe core module marks a solid step in building China's space station. The Tianzhou-2 and Tianzhou-3 cargo spacecraft and the Shenzhou-12 and Shenzhou-13 manned spacecraft, together with the Tianhe core module to which they have docked, form an assembly in steady operation. Six astronauts have worked in China's space station, performing extravehicular activities, in-orbit maintenance, and scientific experiments.

In the next five years, China will continue to implement its manned spaceflight project. It plans to:

· Launch the Wentian and Mengtian experimental modules, the Xuntian space telescope, the Shenzhou manned spacecraft, and the Tianzhou cargo spacecraft;

· Complete China's space station and continue operations, build a space laboratory on board, and have astronauts on long-term assignments performing large-scale scientific experiments and maintenance;

· Continue studies and research on the plan for a human lunar landing, develop new-generation manned spacecraft, and research key technologies to lay a foundation for exploring and developing cislunar space.

 

(四)深空探测

月球探测工程。“嫦娥四号”探测器通过“鹊桥”卫星中继通信,首次实现航天器在月球背面软着陆和巡视勘察。“嫦娥五号”探测器实现中国首次地外天体采样返回,将1731克月球样品成功带回地球,标志着探月工程“绕、落、回”三步走圆满收官。

行星探测工程。“天问一号”火星探测器成功发射,实现火星环绕、着陆,“祝融号”火星车开展巡视探测,在火星上首次留下中国人的印迹,中国航天实现从地月系到行星际探测的跨越。

未来五年,中国将继续实施月球探测工程,发射“嫦娥六号”探测器、完成月球极区采样返回,发射“嫦娥七号”探测器、完成月球极区高精度着陆和阴影坑飞跃探测,完成“嫦娥八号”任务关键技术攻关,与相关国家、国际组织和国际合作伙伴共同开展国际月球科研站建设。继续实施行星探测工程,发射小行星探测器、完成近地小行星采样和主带彗星探测,完成火星采样返回、木星系探测等关键技术攻关。论证太阳系边际探测等实施方案。

4. Deep Space Exploration

(1) Lunar exploration

Achieving relay communications through the Queqiao satellite, the Chang'e-4 lunar probe performed humanity's first soft landing on the far side of the moon, and conducted roving exploration. The Chang'e-5 lunar probe brought back 1,731 g of samples from the moon, marking China's first successful extraterrestrial sampling and return, and the completion of its three-step lunar exploration program of orbiting, landing and return.

(2) Planetary exploration

The Tianwen-1 Mars probe orbited and landed on Mars; the Zhurong Mars rover explored the planet and left China's first mark there. China has achieved a leap from cislunar to interplanetary exploration.

In the next five years, China will continue with lunar and planetary exploration. It will:

· Launch the Chang'e-6 lunar probe to collect and bring back samples from the polar regions of the moon;

· Launch the Chang'e-7 lunar probe to perform a precise landing in the moon's polar regions and a hopping detection in lunar shadowed area;

· Complete R&D on the key technology of Chang'e-8, and work with other countries, international organizations and partners to build an international research station on the moon;

· Launch asteroid probes to sample near-earth asteroids and probe main-belt comets;

· Complete key technological research on Mars sampling and return, exploration of the Jupiter system, and so forth;

· Study plans for boundary exploration of the solar system.

 

(五)发射场与测控

航天发射场。酒泉、太原、西昌发射场适应性改造全面完成,酒泉发射场新增液体火箭商业发射工位,文昌航天发射场进入业务化应用阶段,基本建成沿海内陆相结合、高低纬度相结合、各种射向范围相结合的航天发射格局,能够满足载人飞船、空间站舱段、深空探测器及各类卫星的多样化发射需求。海上发射平台投入使用,填补了中国海上发射火箭的空白。

航天测控。测控通信能力实现由地月空间向行星际空间跨越,天基测控能力持续增强,国家航天测控网布局进一步优化,形成安全可靠、响应迅速、接入灵活、运行高效、服务广泛的天地一体化航天测控体系,圆满完成“神舟”“天舟”系列飞船、“天和”核心舱、“嫦娥”系列月球探测器、“天问一号”火星探测器等为代表的航天测控任务。商业卫星测控站网加快发展。

未来五年,中国将在强化航天产品统一技术体制的基础上,进一步完善现有航天发射场系统,统筹开展发射场通用化、集约化、智能化建设,增强发射场系统任务适应性和可靠性,提升高密度、多样化发射任务支撑能力。建设商业发射工位和商业航天发射场,满足各类商业发射需求。持续完善现有航天测控系统,优化组织模式,创新测控技术和手段,强化天地基测控资源融合运用能力,推动构建全域覆盖、泛在互联的航天测控体系,统筹实施国家太空系统运行管理,提高管理和使用效益。建强深空测控通信网,保障月球、火星等深空探测任务实施。

5. Space Launch Sites and Telemetry, Tracking and Command (TT&C)

(1) Space launch sites

Adaptive improvements have been completed at the Jiuquan, Taiyuan and Xichang launch sites, with new launch pads installed at Jiuquan for the commercial launch of liquid fuel rockets, and the Wenchang Launch Site entering service. China has formed a launch site network covering both coastal and inland areas, high and low altitudes, and various trajectories to satisfy the launch needs of manned spaceships, space station modules, deep space probes and all kinds of satellites. In addition, its first sea launch site has begun operation.

(2) Space TT&C

China's leap from cislunar to interplanetary TT&C communications, with growing space-based TT&C capacity, represents a significant progress. Its space TT&C network has improved to form an integrated space-ground TT&C network providing security, reliability, quick response, flexible access, efficient operation and diverse services. TT&C missions of the Shenzhou and Tianzhou spacecraft series, Tianhe core module, Chang'e lunar probe series, and Tianwen-1 Mars probe have been completed successfully. TT&C station networks for commercial satellites are growing quickly.

In the next five years, China will strengthen unified technical standard-setting for its space products, and on this basis will:

· Further adapt the existing launch site system to better serve most launch missions, and make launch sites smarter, more reliable and more cost-effective to support high-intensity and diversified launch missions;

· Build commercial launch pads and launch sites to meet different commercial launch needs;

· Improve the space TT&C network in terms of organization, technology and methodology, grow the capacity to utilize and integrate space- and ground-based TT&C resources, and build a space TT&C network providing ubiquitous coverage and connections;

· Coordinate the operation and management of the national space system for greater efficiency;

· Strengthen the deep-space TT&C communications network to support missions probing the moon and Mars.

 

(六)新技术试验

成功发射多颗新技术试验卫星,开展新一代通信卫星公用平台、甚高通量通信载荷、Ka频段宽带通信、星地高速激光通信、新型电推进等技术试验验证。

未来五年,中国将面向新技术工程化应用,开展航天器智能自主管理、空间扩展飞行器、新型空间动力、航天器在轨服务与维护、空间碎片清除等新技术验证,以及航天领域新材料、新器件、新工艺在轨试验验证,提升技术成熟度和工程应用能力。

6. Experiments on New Technologies

China has launched a number of new technological test satellites, and tested new technologies such as the common platforms of new-generation communications satellites, very high throughput satellites' telecommunication payload, Ka-band communications, satellite-ground high-speed laser communications, and new electric propulsion.

In the next five years, China will focus on new technology engineering and application, conduct in-orbit tests of new space materials, devices and techniques, and test new technologies in these areas:

· Smart self-management of spacecraft;

· Space mission extension vehicle;

· Innovative space propulsion;

· In-orbit service and maintenance of spacecraft;

· Space debris cleaning.

 

(七)空间环境治理

空间碎片监测网络初具规模,基础数据库不断完善,碰撞预警和空间事件感知应对能力逐步提升,有力保障在轨航天器运行安全。落实国际空间碎片减缓准则、外空活动长期可持续准则,全面实施运载火箭末级钝化,成功实施“天宫二号”等航天器任务末期主动离轨,为空间碎片减缓作出积极贡献。近地小天体搜索跟踪和数据分析研究取得积极进展。初步建成空间天气保障业务体系,具备监测、预警和预报能力,应用服务效益不断拓展。

未来五年,中国将统筹推进空间环境治理体系建设。加强太空交通管理,建设完善空间碎片监测设施体系、编目数据库和预警服务系统,统筹做好航天器在轨维护、碰撞规避控制、空间碎片减缓等工作,确保太空系统安全稳定有序运行。全面加强防护力量建设,提高容灾备份、抗毁生存、信息防护能力,维护国家太空活动、资产和其他利益的安全。论证建设近地小天体防御系统,提升监测、编目、预警和应对处置能力。建设天地结合的空间天气监测系统,持续完善业务保障体系,有效应对灾害性空间天气事件。

7. Space Environment Governance

With a growing database, China's space debris monitoring system is becoming more capable of collision warning and space event perception and response, effectively ensuring the safety of in-orbit spacecraft.

In compliance with the Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines and the Guidelines for the Long-term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities, China has applied upper stage passivation to all its carrier rockets, and completed end of life active deorbit of the Tiangong-2 and other spacecraft, making a positive contribution to mitigating space debris.

Progress has been made in the search and tracking of near-earth objects and in data analysis. A basic space climate service system is now in place, capable of providing services in space climate monitoring, early warning, and forecasting, and is providing broader applications.

In the next five years, China will continue to expand its space environment governance system. It will:

· Strengthen space traffic control;

· Improve its space debris monitoring system, cataloguing database, and early warning services;

· Conduct in-orbit maintenance of spacecraft, collision avoidance and control, and space debris mitigation, to ensure the safe, stable and orderly operation of the space system;

· Strengthen the protection of its space activities, assets and other interests by boosting capacity in disaster backup and information protection, and increasing invulnerability and survivability;

· Study plans for building a near-earth object defense system, and increase the capacity of near-earth object monitoring, cataloguing, early warning, and response;

· Build an integrated space-ground space climate monitoring system, and continue to improve relevant services to effectively respond to catastrophic space climate events.

 

三、培育壮大空间应用产业

中国航天面向经济社会发展重大需求,加强卫星公益服务和商业应用,加速航天技术成果转移转化,推动空间应用产业发展,提升航天发展效益效能。

III. Developing and Expanding Space Application Industry

To serve the economy and society, China has promoted public and commercial application of its satellites and space technology, growing the industry towards greater efficiency.

 

(一)卫星公益服务

卫星应用业务服务能力显著增强,在资源环境与生态保护、防灾减灾与应急管理、气象预报与气候变化应对、社会管理与公共服务、城镇化建设与区域协调发展、脱贫攻坚等方面发挥重要作用,航天创造更加美好生活。卫星遥感基本实现了国家和省级政府部门业务化应用,对100余次国内重特大自然灾害开展应急监测,为国内数万家各类用户和全球100多个国家提供服务,累计分发数据超亿景。卫星通信广播累计为国内农村及边远地区的1.4亿多户家庭提供直播卫星电视服务、500多个手机通信基站提供数据回传,在四川凉山特大森林火灾、河南郑州特大暴雨等灾害救援中提供高效应急通信服务。北斗导航为超过700万辆道路运营车辆提供安全保障服务,为超过4万艘海洋渔船提供定位和短报文通信服务,为新冠肺炎疫情防控物资运输、人员流动管理、医院建设等提供精准位置服务。

未来五年,围绕平安中国、健康中国、美丽中国、数字中国建设,强化卫星应用与行业区域发展深度融合,强化空间信息与大数据、物联网等新一代信息技术深度融合,深化陆地、海洋、气象遥感卫星数据综合应用,推进北斗导航+卫星通信+地面通信网络融合应用基础设施建设,加快提升精细化精准化业务化服务能力,更好服务支撑碳达峰与碳中和、乡村振兴、新型城镇化、区域协调发展和生态文明建设。

1. Boosting Public Services with Satellites

The service capacity of satellite applications has markedly improved. The significant role of satellites is seen in the protection of resources and the eco-environment, disaster prevention and mitigation, management of emergencies, weather forecasting and climate change response, and also felt in social management and public services, urbanization, coordinated regional development, and poverty eradication. The space industry helps to improve people's lives.

The satellite remote-sensing system has been used by almost all departments at national and provincial levels to conduct emergency monitoring of over 100 major and catastrophic natural disasters around the country. It provides services to tens of thousands of domestic users and over 100 countries, having distributed over 100 million scenes of data.

The communications and broadcasting satellite network has made direct services available to over 140 million households in China's rural and remote areas, provided returned data for over 500 mobile phone base stations, and ensured efficient emergency communications during the responses to the forest fire in Liangshan, Sichuan province, to the heavy rainstorm in Zhengzhou, Henan province and to other major disaster relief work.

The BeiDou Navigation Satellite System has guaranteed the safety of over seven million operating vehicles, provided positioning and short message communication services to over 40,000 seagoing fishing vessels, and offered precise positioning services for the freighting of supplies and tracking of individual movement for Covid-19 control, and for hospital construction.

In the next five years, under the overarching goal of building a safe, healthy, beautiful and digital China, we will intensify the integration of satellite application with the development of industries and regions, and space information with new-generation information technology such as big data and Internet of Things. We will also extend the integrated application of remote-sensing satellite data on land, ocean and meteorology, advance the construction of infrastructure for integrated application of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, satellite communications, and the ground communications network, and improve our capacity to tailor and refine professional services. All these efforts will help to achieve the goals of peaking carbon dioxide emissions and carbon neutrality, to revitalize rural areas, and to realize new-type urbanization, coordinated development between regions and eco-environmental progress.

 

(二)空间应用产业

卫星应用商业化发展方兴未艾,面向政府、企业和个人的应用市场持续扩大,涌现出一批具有较强竞争力的商业航天企业,产业化规模化发展格局初步形成。卫星遥感高精地图、全维影像、数据加工、应用软件等产品和服务更好满足了不同用户特色需求,广泛应用于大众出行、电子商务、农产品交易、灾害损失评估与保险理赔、不动产登记等领域。卫星通信广播商业服务能力进一步提升,实现国内4个4K超高清频道上星和100多套节目高清化,为远洋船舶、民航客机提供互联网接入服务,“天通一号”卫星移动通信系统实现商业化运营。卫星导航产业快速发展,北斗兼容型芯片模块销量超过亿级规模,北斗应用广泛进入大众消费、共享经济和民生领域。航天技术成果加速赋能传统产业转型升级,助推新能源、新材料、绿色环保等新兴产业和智慧城市、智慧农业、无人驾驶等新业态发展,为建设科技强国、制造强国、网络强国、交通强国作出重要贡献。

未来五年,中国航天将紧紧抓住数字产业化、产业数字化发展机遇,面向经济社会发展和大众多样化需求,加大航天成果转化和技术转移,丰富应用场景,创新商业模式,推动空间应用与数字经济发展深度融合。拓展卫星遥感、卫星通信应用广度深度,实施北斗产业化工程,为国民经济各行业领域和大众消费提供更先进更经济的优质产品和便利服务。培育发展太空旅游、太空生物制药、空间碎片清除、空间试验服务等太空经济新业态,提升航天产业规模效益。

2. Space Application Industry

The commercial use of satellite technology is thriving, which expands the applications market for governments, enterprises and individuals. A group of competitive commercial space enterprises are emerging and realizing industrialized large-scale operation. A variety of products and services such as high-accuracy maps using remote-sensing data, full dimensional images, data processing, and application software are improving the service to users in transport, e-commerce, trading of agricultural products, assessment of disaster losses and insurance claims, and the registration of real estate.

The ability to commercialize satellite communications and broadcasting services has further improved. Four 4K Ultra HD television channels in China were launched and TV viewers now have access to over 100 HD channels. Internet access is also available on board ocean vessels and passenger aircraft. Tiantong-1, a satellite mobile communication system, is in commercial operation.

The satellite navigation industry has witnessed rapid growth as evidenced by sales of over 100 million chips compatible with the BeiDou system. Its industrial applications have been widely introduced into mass consumption, the sharing economy, and daily life. Achievements in space technology have helped traditional industries transform and upgrade, supported emerging industries such as new energy, new materials and environmental protection, enabled new business models such as smart cities, smart agriculture and unmanned driving to grow, making a great contribution to building China's strengths in science and technology, manufacturing, cyberspace and transport.

In the next five years, China's space industry will seize the opportunities presented by the expanding digital industry and the digital transformation of traditional industries, to promote the application and transfer of space technology. Through innovative business models and the deep integration of space application with digital economy, more efforts will be made to expand and extend the scope for applying satellite remote-sensing and satellite communications technologies, and realizing the industrialized operation of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System. This will provide more advanced, economical, high-quality products and convenient services for all industries and sectors and for mass consumption. New business models for upscaling the space economy such as travel, biomedicine, debris removal and experiment services will be developed to expand the industry.

 

四、开展空间科学探索与研究

中国航天围绕宇宙起源和演化、太阳系与人类的关系等科学主题,论证实施空间科学计划,开展空间科学探索和空间环境下的科学实验,深化基础理论研究,孵化重大空间科学研究成果。


IV. Research on Space Science

China's research on space science focuses on scientific questions such as the origin and evolution of the universe, and the relationship between the solar system and humanity. It has launched programs to explore space and conduct experiments, advanced research on basic theories, and incubated major research findings.

 

(一)空间科学探索

空间天文。“悟空”号暗物质粒子探测卫星获取了宇宙射线电子、质子和氦核能谱精细结构。成功发射“慧眼”硬X射线调制望远镜卫星,实现宇宙磁场测量和黑洞双星爆发过程全景观测。成功发射“羲和号”太阳探测科学技术试验卫星,获得多幅Hɑ波段不同波长点的太阳光谱图像。

月球与行星科学。依托月球探测工程,开展月球地质和月表浅层结构综合探测,在月球岩浆活动定年、矿物学特征和化学元素分析等方面取得重大成果。依托行星探测工程,开展火星地表结构、土壤和岩石物质成分分析,深化火星地质演化认知。

空间地球科学。“张衡一号”电磁监测试验卫星获取了全球地磁场和电离层原位数据,构建了全球地磁场参考模型。全球二氧化碳监测科学实验卫星获取了全球高精度二氧化碳分布图,卫星数据向全球免费共享。

空间基础物理。利用“墨子”号量子科学实验卫星,开展千公里级星地量子纠缠分发和隐形传态实验、引力诱导量子纠缠退相干实验,完成基于纠缠的无中继千公里量子密钥分发。成功发射“太极一号”和“天琴一号”空间引力波探测试验卫星。

未来五年,中国将围绕极端宇宙、时空涟漪、日地全景、宜居行星等科学主题,研制空间引力波探测卫星、爱因斯坦探针、先进天基太阳天文台、太阳风-磁层相互作用全景成像卫星、高精度地磁场测量卫星等,持续开展空间天文、日球物理、月球与行星科学、空间地球科学、空间基础物理等领域的前瞻探索和基础研究,催生更多原创性科学成果。

1. Research on Space Science

(1) Space astronomy

The Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) Satellite obtained the precise measurements of the energy spectrums of cosmic ray electrons, protons and the GCR helium. The Huiyan (Insight) Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope was successfully launched; it has since discovered the strongest magnetic field in the universe and obtained a panoramic view of the black hole binary explosion process. The Xihe observation satellite was successfully launched, which obtained multiple solar spectroscopic images at different wavelengths in the Hα waveband.

(2) Lunar and planetary science

Led by its lunar exploration program, China has achieved significant advances in the comprehensive surveying of the moon's geology and subsurface structure, in dating the lunar magmatic activity, and in analyzing its mineralogical features and chemical elements. In planetary exploration, China has built a deeper understanding of the geological evolution of Mars by conducting analysis of its surface structure and soil and the composition of its rocks.

(3) Space earth sciences

Zhangheng-1, also known as the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite, helped to obtain data on and build models of the global geomagnetic field and the in situ data of ionosphere parameters. A high-precision global carbon flux map, developed by using the data from the Chinese Global Carbon Dioxide Monitoring Scientific Experimental Satellite, is shared globally free of any charge.

(4) Space physics

With the help of Mozi, the world's first quantum communication satellite, China has carried out experiments on satellite-based quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over thousand kilometers, on gravitational induced decoherence of quantum entanglement, and on entanglement-based secure quantum cryptography over thousand kilometers with no trusted relay. It has also launched the Taiji-1 and Tianqin-1 satellites to support the space gravitational wave detection program.

In the next five years, China will continue with the research and development of programs such as the satellite for space gravitational wave detection, the Einstein Probe, the advanced space-based solar observatory, the panoramic imaging satellite for solar wind and magnetosphere interaction, and the high precision magnetic field measurement satellite, focusing on the subjects of the extreme universe, ripples in time and space, the panoramic view of the sun and the earth, and the search for habitable planets. China will continue to explore frontier areas and research into space astronomy, heliospheric physics, lunar and planetary science, space earth sciences, and space physics, to generate more original scientific findings.

 

(二)空间环境下的科学实验

利用“神舟”系列飞船、“天宫二号”空间实验室、“实践十号”卫星等,在太空实现了哺乳动物细胞胚胎发育,完成世界首台空间冷原子钟在轨验证,深化了微重力颗粒分聚和煤粉燃烧、材料制备等机理认识,取得了一批有国际影响力的空间科学研究成果。

未来五年,中国将利用天宫空间站、“嫦娥”系列探测器、“天问一号”探测器等空间实验平台,开展空间环境下的生物、生命、医学、材料等方面的实验和研究,持续深化人类对基础科学的认知。

2. Science Experiments in Space

With the help of the Shenzhou spacecraft series, the Tiangong-2 space laboratory, and the Shijian-10 satellite, China has achieved mammalian embryonic development in space and in-orbit verification of the world's first space cold atom clock, expanded the understanding of the mechanisms behind particle segregation in microgravity, pulverized coal combustion, and material preparation, and achieved research findings in space science of international standing.

In the coming five years, China will make use of space experiment platforms such as the Tiangong space station, the Chang'e lunar probe series, and the Tianwen-1 Mars probe to conduct experiments and research on biology, life, medicine, and materials, to expand humanity's understanding of basic science.

 

五、推进航天治理现代化

中国政府积极制定发展航天事业的政策与措施,科学部署各项航天活动,充分发挥有效市场和有为政府作用,营造良好发展环境,推动航天事业高质量发展。

V. Modernizing Space Governance

The Chinese government has been proactive in developing the space industry, through policy measures and well-thought-out plans for space activities. Better alignment between a well-functioning market and an enabling government gives full play to the roles of both, endeavoring to create a favorable environment for the growth of a high-quality space industry.

 

(一)持续提升航天创新能力

建设航天战略科技力量,打造以科研院所为主体的原始创新策源地,建立健全产学研用深度融合的航天技术创新体系,构建关键领域航天科技创新联盟,形成上中下游协同、大中小企业融通的创新发展格局。

推进实施一批航天重大工程和重大科技项目,推动航天科技跨越发展,带动国家科技整体跃升。

勇攀航天科技高峰,超前部署战略性、基础性、前瞻性科学研究和技术攻关,推进新一代信息技术在航天领域融合应用,加速先进技术特别是颠覆性技术的工程应用。

加强航天技术二次开发,推动航天科技成果转化应用,辐射带动国民经济发展。

1. Enhancing Innovation

In order to create a new configuration in which the upper, middle and lower industrial chains are coordinated, and large, small and medium-sized enterprises advance in an integrated way, China is building a strategic force of space science and technology, encouraging original innovation by research institutes and bringing together enterprises, universities, research institutes and end-users in creating and applying new technologies. A technological innovation alliance is emerging in key areas of space science.

A number of major space and science projects are in place to promote the leapfrog development of space science and technology, which spearheads overall technical advances.

China is making forward-looking plans for strategic, fundamental and technological breakthroughs in space science - it is integrating the application of new-generation information technology in the space sector, and accelerating the engineering application of advanced and especially revolutionary technologies.

The secondary development of space technologies will be further reinforced to put research findings into industrial production and boost the economy.

 

(二)强化航天工业基础能力

持续完善基于系统集成商、专业承包商、市场供应商和公共服务机构,根植于国民经济,融合开放的航天科研生产组织体系。

优化产业结构布局,做强研发制造,做优发射运营,做大应用服务,强健产业链供应链。

加快工业化与信息化深度融合,建设智能化脉动生产线、智能车间、智慧院所,持续推动航天工业能力转型升级。

2. Strengthening Basic Industrial Capabilities

The space industry will continue to improve its integrated and open industrial system comprising system integrators, specialized contractors, market suppliers, and public service providers, and covering all links from research to production.

To strengthen the industrial and supply chains of its space industry and transform and upgrade the basic capabilities of the industry, China will optimize the industrial structure and upgrade R&D, manufacturing, launch operations, and application services, further integrate industrialization with information technology, and build intelligent production lines, workshops and institutes.

 

(三)加快发展空间应用产业

完善卫星应用产业发展政策,统筹公益和市场需求,统合设施资源建设,统一数据与产品标准,畅通共享共用渠道,构建产品标准化、服务个性化的卫星应用服务体系。

加快培育卫星应用市场,支持各类市场主体开展卫星应用增值产品开发,创新卫星应用模式,培育“航天+”产业生态,加快发展航天战略性新兴产业。

3. Expanding Application

China will improve the policies for its satellite application industry, including coordinating public interest and market demand, integrating facilities and resources, unifying data and product standards, and streamline the channel for sharing and utilization. It is committed to improving satellite application services with unified standards and customized choices.

China will move faster to grow its satellite application market, where various market entities are encouraged to develop value-added products. By creating new application models, China is fostering a "space plus" industrial ecosystem and promoting emerging strategic industries related to space.

 

(四)鼓励引导商业航天发展

研究制定商业航天发展指导意见,促进商业航天快速发展。扩大政府采购商业航天产品和服务范围,推动重大科研设施设备向商业航天企业开放共享,支持商业航天企业参与航天重大工程项目研制,建立航天活动市场准入负面清单制度,确保商业航天企业有序进入退出、公平参与竞争。

优化商业航天在产业链中布局,鼓励引导商业航天企业从事卫星应用和航天技术转移转化。

4. Encouraging Commercialization

China has formulated guidelines on commercializing its space industry. It will expand the scope of government procurement of space products and services, grant relevant enterprises access and sharing rights to major scientific research facilities and equipment, and support these enterprises in joining the R&D of major engineering projects. It will establish a negative list for market access to space activities, to ensure fair competition and the orderly entry and exit of participating enterprises.

China will optimize the distribution of the space industry in the national industrial chain, and encourage and guide participating enterprises to engage in satellite application and the transfer and transformation of space technologies.

 

(五)积极推进法治航天建设

加快推进航天法立法,构建完善以航天法为核心的航天法制体系,促进法治航天建设。研究制定卫星导航条例,规范和加强卫星导航活动管理。修订空间物体登记管理办法,持续规范空间数据共享和使用管理、民用航天发射许可管理。研究制定卫星频率轨道资源管理条例,加强卫星频率轨道资源申报、协调和登记,维护我国卫星频率轨道资源合法权益,助力航天事业发展。

加强国际空间法研究,积极参与外空国际规则、国际电联规则制定,维护以国际法为基础的外空国际秩序,推动构建公正、合理的外空全球治理体系。

5. Promoting Law-Based Governance

To promote law-based governance of the space industry, China will speed up the formulation of a national space law and establish a legal system with this law at the core. This will include studying and formulating regulations on satellite navigation, strengthening the management of satellite navigation activities, revising measures for the registration of space objects, and regulating the sharing and use of space data and the licensing of civil space launches. It will also include studying and formulating regulations on the management of satellite frequency and orbit resources, and strengthening the declaration, coordination and registration of these resources to safeguard the country's legitimate rights and interests in this regard. China has strengthened research on international space law, and actively participated in formulating International Telecommunication Union standards and international rules regarding outer space, maintaining the international order in outer space based on international space law, and contributing to a fair and reasonable global governance system for outer space.

 

(六)建设高水平航天人才队伍

加快建设航天领域世界重要人才中心和创新高地,厚植人才发展沃土,壮大人才队伍规模。完善人才培养机制,加强战略科学家、科技领军人才、青年科技人才和创新团队建设,培养一大批卓越工程师、高素质技术技能人才和大国工匠,造就一批具有国际视野和社会责任感的优秀企业家。完善人才交流机制,规范和引导航天人才合理流动。完善人才激励机制,加大奖励支持力度。加强航天特色学科专业建设,培养航天后备人才队伍。

6. Strengthening Team-Building

China will step up its efforts to become a world center for talent and innovation in space science, and create favorable conditions for the development of professionals and the expansion of their ranks. It will improve the personnel training mechanism - fostering a pool of strategic scientists, leading and young scientists, and teams with strong innovation capacity, and cultivating a large number of outstanding engineers, top technicians championing fine craftsmanship, and visionary entrepreneurs with a sense of social responsibility. China will improve its personnel management mechanisms to regulate and guide the rational flow of professionals. It will also upgrade incentives with greater rewards and stronger support, and strengthen specialty disciplines in universities to cultivate a reserve force of aerospace personnel.

 

(七)大力开展航天科普教育和文化建设

继续组织开展“中国航天日”系列活动,充分利用“世界空间周”“全国科技活动周”以及“天宫课堂”等平台,加强航天科普教育,普及航天知识,传播航天文化,传承弘扬“两弹一星”精神和载人航天精神、探月精神、新时代北斗精神,激发全民尤其是青少年崇尚科学、探索未知、敢于创新的热情,提高全民科学文化素养。

做好重大航天遗产保护,持续推动航天博物馆、航天体验园等科普教育基地建设。鼓励支持航天题材文艺作品创作,繁荣航天文化。

7. Promoting Space Education and Culture

China will continue to hold events to celebrate its Space Day, promote education on space knowledge and culture during World Space Week and National Science and Technology Week, and through Tiangong Classroom and other platforms, and promote the culture and spirit embodied in the development of the atomic and hydrogen bombs, missiles, man-made satellites, manned spaceflight, lunar probes and the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System in the new era. The goal is to inspire the nation, especially the young people, to develop an interest in science, to create and explore the unknown, and to increase scientific knowledge among the general public.

China will protect its major space heritage and build more space museums and experience parks to popularize space science and provide education. It will encourage the creation of space-related literary and art works to promote space culture.

 

六、构建航天国际合作新格局

和平探索、开发和利用外层空间是世界各国都享有的平等权利。中国倡导世界各国一起推动构建人类命运共同体,坚持在平等互利、和平利用、包容发展的基础上,深入开展航天国际交流合作。

VI. International Cooperation

Peaceful exploration, development and utilization of outer space are rights equally enjoyed by all countries. China calls on all countries to work together to build a global community of shared future and carry out in-depth exchanges and cooperation in outer space on the basis of equality, mutual benefit, peaceful utilization, and inclusive development.

 

(一)基本政策

中国政府在开展航天国际交流合作中,采取以下基本政策:

——维护联合国在外空事务中的核心作用,遵循联合国《关于各国探索和利用包括月球和其他天体在内外层空间活动的原则条约》,重视联合国相关原则、宣言、决议的指导意义,积极参与外空国际规则制定,促进外空活动长期可持续发展。

——加强空间科学、技术及应用等领域的国际交流与合作,与国际社会一道提供全球公共产品与服务,为人类应对共同挑战作出贡献。

——加强基于共同目标、服务“一带一路”建设的空间合作,使航天发展成果惠及沿线国家,特别是发展中国家。

——支持亚太空间合作组织发挥重要作用,重视在金砖国家合作机制、上海合作组织框架、二十国集团合作机制下的空间合作。

——鼓励和支持国内科研机构、企业、高等院校、社会团体,依据有关政策和法规,开展多层次、多形式的国际空间交流与合作。

1. Basic Policies

China's basic policies on international exchanges and cooperation are as follows:

· Safeguarding the central role of the United Nations in managing outer space affairs; abiding by the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies; upholding the guiding role of relevant UN principles, declarations and resolutions; actively participating in the formulation of international rules regarding outer space; and promoting greater sustainability of space activities;

· Strengthening international exchanges and cooperation on space science, technology and application; working together with the international community to provide public products and services; and contributing to global efforts to address common challenges;

· Strengthening international space cooperation that is based on common goals and serves the Belt and Road Initiative, and ensuring that the space industry benefits the Initiative's participating countries, especially developing countries;

· Supporting the Asia-Pacific Space Cooperation Organization (APSCO) to play an important role, and giving weight to cooperation under the BRICS and Group 20 mechanisms and within the framework of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization;

· Encouraging and endorsing the efforts of domestic research institutes, enterprises, institutions of higher learning, and social organizations to engage in international space exchanges and cooperation in diverse forms and at various levels in accordance with relevant policies, laws and regulations.

 

(二)主要进展

2016年以来,中国与19个国家和地区、4个国际组织,签署46项空间合作协定或谅解备忘录;积极推动外空全球治理;利用双边、多边合作机制,开展空间科学、空间技术、空间应用等领域国际合作,取得丰硕成果。

2. Major Achievements

Since 2016, China has signed 46 space cooperation agreements or memoranda of understanding with 19 countries and regions and four international organizations. It has actively promoted global governance of outer space, and carried out international cooperation in space science, technology and application through bilateral and multilateral mechanisms. These measures have yielded fruitful results.

 

1.外空全球治理。

——参加联合国框架下外空活动长期可持续性、空间资源开发利用、防止外空军备竞赛等议题磋商,共同创建空间探索与创新等新议题,持续推进联合国空间2030议程。

——支持联合国灾害管理与应急反应天基信息平台北京办公室工作,深度参与联合国全球卫星导航系统国际委员会各项活动,加入空间任务规划咨询组和国际小行星预警网等国际机制。

——发挥亚太空间合作组织东道国作用,支持《亚太空间合作组织2030年发展愿景》。

——利用中俄航天合作分委会空间碎片工作组、中美空间碎片与空间飞行安全专家研讨会等机制加强在空间碎片、外空活动长期可持续等领域的交流。

——支持国际电信联盟、地球观测组织、机构间空间碎片协调委员会、国际空间数据系统咨询委员会、国际空间探索协调组、机构间互操作顾问委员会等国际组织活动。

(1) Global governance of outer space

· China participates in consultations on issues such as the long-term sustainability of outer space activities, the development and utilization of space resources, and the prevention of arms race in outer space. Together with other parties, it has proposed discussions on space exploration and innovation, and advanced the Space2030 Agenda of the UN.

· China supports the work of the Beijing office of the United Nations Platform for Space-based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response, and has participated in the activities of the International Committee on Global Navigation Satellite Systems in an in-depth manner. It has joined international mechanisms such as the Space Missions Planning Advisory Group and the International Asteroid Warning Network.

· China plays its role as the host country of APSCO, and supports the organization's Development Vision 2030.

· China has strengthened international exchanges on space debris, long-term sustainability of outer space activities, and other issues through mechanisms such as the Space Debris Work Group of China-Russia Space Cooperation Sub-committee and the Sino-US Expert Workshop on Space Debris and Space Flight Safety.

· China supports the activities of international organizations such as the International Telecommunication Union, Group on Earth Observations, Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee, Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems, International Space Exploration Coordination Group, and the Interagency Operations Advisory Group.

 

2.载人航天。

——利用“天宫二号”空间实验室与欧洲空间局合作开展伽马暴偏振探测研究,在“神舟十一号”载人飞行任务期间与法国合作开展微重力环境下人体医学研究,与欧洲航天员中心联合进行洞穴训练、海上救生训练。

——完成中国空间站首批空间科学国际合作实验项目遴选,围绕空间科学实验、空间站舱段研制与德国、意大利、俄罗斯开展技术合作与交流。

(2) Manned spaceflight

· China has carried out gamma-ray burst polarization monitoring research with the European Space Agency on the Tiangong-2 space laboratory, conducted human body medical research in a micro-gravitational environment with France during the Shenzhou-11 manned spaceflight mission, carried out joint CAVES training and maritime rescue drills with the European Astronaut Centre.

· China has completed the selection of the first batch of international space science experiments to be conducted on the Chinese space station, and conducted technological cooperation and exchanges with Germany, Italy and Russia on space science experiments and the development of space station sections.

 

3.北斗导航。

——推动中国北斗卫星导航系统与美国全球定位系统、俄罗斯格罗纳斯系统、欧洲伽利略系统协调发展,在兼容与互操作、监测评估、联合应用等领域深入合作。

——推动北斗国际标准化工作,相继进入民航、海事、国际搜救、移动通信、电工委员会等多个国际组织标准体系。

——推动北斗系统全球服务,与阿盟、非盟分别建立北斗合作论坛机制,在突尼斯建成首个海外北斗中心,与巴基斯坦、沙特阿拉伯、阿根廷、南非、阿尔及利亚、泰国等国家开展卫星导航合作。

(3) BeiDou Navigation Satellite System

· China has coordinated the development of China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System and the United States' Global Positioning System, Russia's GLONASS system, and Europe's Galileo system. It has carried out in-depth cooperation with them in the fields of compatibility, interoperability, monitoring and assessment, and joint application.

· China has pressed ahead with international standardization of the BeiDou system, which has been included in the standard systems of the International Electrotechnical Commission and many other international organizations in fields such as civil aviation, maritime affairs, international search and rescue, and mobile communications.

· China has increased the BeiDou system's global service capacity by establishing BeiDou cooperation forum mechanisms with the League of Arab States and the African Union, completing the first overseas BeiDou center in Tunisia, and conducting satellite navigation cooperation with countries such as Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Argentina, South Africa, Algeria, and Thailand.

 

4.深空探测。

——与俄罗斯联合发起国际月球科研站计划,启动中俄月球与深空探测联合数据中心建设,推动中国“嫦娥七号”月球极区探测任务与俄罗斯月球-资源-1轨道器任务联合实施。

——利用月球探测工程“嫦娥四号”任务,与俄罗斯、欧洲空间局开展了工程技术合作,与瑞典、德国、荷兰、沙特开展了科学载荷合作。启动月球探测工程“嫦娥六号”任务国际载荷搭载合作。

——利用首次火星探测“天问一号”任务,与欧洲空间局开展了工程技术合作,与奥地利、法国开展了科学载荷合作。与美国建立火星探测器轨道数据交换机制。启动小行星探测任务国际载荷搭载合作。

——与欧洲空间局、阿根廷、纳米比亚、巴基斯坦开展月球与深空探测领域的测控合作。

(4) Deep-space exploration

· China launched the international lunar research station project together with Russia, and initiated the Sino-Russian Joint Data Center for Lunar and Deep-space Exploration. It is working with Russia to coordinate Chang'e-7's lunar polar exploration mission with Russia's LUNA-Resource-1 orbiter mission.

· In the Chang'e-4 lunar exploration mission China cooperated with Russia and the European Space Agency on engineering technology, and with Sweden, Germany, the Netherlands and Saudi Arabia on payloads. It has launched international onboard payload cooperation in the Chang'e-6 lunar exploration mission.

· In the Tianwen-1 mission, China's first Mars exploration project, China cooperated with the European Space Agency on engineering technology, and with Austria and France on payloads. It has established a Mars probe orbit data exchange mechanism with the United States, and launched international onboard payload cooperation in its asteroid exploration mission.

· In the fields of lunar and deep-space exploration, China cooperated on TT&C with the European Space Agency, Argentina, Namibia, and Pakistan.

 

5.空间技术。

——联合研制并成功发射中法海洋卫星、中巴(西)地球资源04A星、埃塞俄比亚遥感微小卫星,为亚太空间合作组织成功搭载发射大学生小卫星。持续推进埃及二号遥感卫星等联合研制。

——完成巴基斯坦遥感卫星一号、委内瑞拉遥感卫星二号、苏丹一号遥感卫星、阿尔及利亚一号通信卫星等在轨交付。

——为沙特阿拉伯、巴基斯坦、阿根廷、巴西、加拿大、卢森堡等国家提供卫星搭载发射服务。

——与俄罗斯、乌克兰、白俄罗斯、阿根廷、巴基斯坦、尼日利亚等国家开展宇航产品技术合作。

——助力发展中国家航天能力建设。与埃及、巴基斯坦、尼日利亚等国家合作建设卫星研制基础设施。推动“一带一路”空间信息走廊建设,向发展中国家开放中国空间设施资源。

(5) Space technology

· Together with relevant partners China has developed and successfully launched the China-France Oceanography Satellite, China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite 04A, and the Ethiopian Remote-Sensing Satellite. It has launched the Student Small Satellites (SSS) for APSCO. It is jointly developing the MisrSat-2 remote-sensing satellite.

· China completed the in-orbit delivery of the Pakistan Remote-Sensing Satellite (PRSS-1), Venezuelan Remote-Sensing Satellite (VRSS-2), Sudan Remote-Sensing Satellite (SRSS-1), and the Algerian Communications Satellite (Alcomsat-1).

· China has provided satellite carrying or launching services for countries including Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, and Luxembourg.

· China has conducted space product and technology cooperation with countries including Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Argentina, Pakistan, and Nigeria.

· China has helped developing countries boost their space science and research. It has built satellite research and development infrastructure with countries including Egypt, Pakistan and Nigeria. It has pressed ahead with the construction of the Belt and Road Initiative Space Information Corridor, and opened China's space facilities to developing countries.

 

6.空间应用。

——建立风云气象卫星国际用户防灾减灾应急保障机制,中国气象卫星数据广泛应用于121个国家和地区。

——签署金砖国家遥感卫星星座合作协定。与欧洲空间局开展对地观测卫星数据交换合作。建设中国-东盟卫星信息(海上)服务平台和遥感卫星数据共享服务平台。与老挝、泰国、柬埔寨、缅甸等国家共同建设澜沧江-湄公河空间信息交流中心。

——与玻利维亚、印度尼西亚、纳米比亚、泰国、南非等国家合作建设卫星数据接收站。

——积极参与空间与重大灾害国际宪章机制,为近40个国家的减灾提供卫星遥感数据近800景,新增8颗(座)卫星和星座作为值班卫星和星座,提升国际社会防灾减灾能力。

——积极开展卫星应急监测和服务,针对15个国家的17次重特大灾害事故启动应急监测,就2018年阿富汗大旱、2018年老挝溃坝事故、2019年莫桑比克台风向受灾国相关部门提供监测产品服务。

——发布《中国面向全球的综合地球观测系统十年执行计划(2016-2025年)》,担任地球观测组织2020年轮值主席国,推动全球综合地球观测系统建设。

——参与国际空间气候观测(SCO)平台机制,推动中国利用空间技术应对气候变化的最佳实践,助力国际空间气候观测合作。

(6) Space applications

· China has established an emergency support mechanism for disaster prevention and mitigation for international users of the Fengyun meteorological satellites, and data from China's meteorological satellites have been widely used in 121 countries and regions.

· China has signed cooperation agreements for the BRICS Remote-Sensing Satellite Constellation, cooperated with the European Space Agency on earth observation satellite data exchange, and built the China-ASEAN Satellite Information Offshore Service Platform and the Remote-Sensing Satellite Data-Sharing Service Platform. It has worked with Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar to build the Lancang-Mekong Space Information Exchange Center.

· China has built satellite data receiving stations with countries including Bolivia, Indonesia, Namibia, Thailand and South Africa.

· China actively participates in the mechanism of the International Charter on Space and Major Disasters, providing satellite remote-sensing data totaling 800 scenes and adding eight new on-duty satellites (constellations) to the satellite system, thereby improving the international community's capacity for disaster prevention and mitigation.

· China actively provides satellite emergency monitoring services. It has initiated emergency monitoring in response to 17 major disasters in 15 countries. For instance, in response to the severe drought in Afghanistan and the dam collapse in Laos in 2018, and to the cyclone that struck Mozambique in 2019, it provided monitoring services for the authorities of affected countries.

· China released its GEO Strategic Plan 2016-2025: Implementing GEOSS. It served as the rotating chair of the Group on Earth Observations in 2020 and promoted the construction of a global earth observation system.

· China participates in the international Space Climate Observatory platform, promoting China's best practices in space technology to address climate change, and facilitating international cooperation on space climate observation.

 

7.空间科学。

——与瑞士、意大利、奥地利、英国、日本等国家联合开展“悟空”号、“墨子”号、“实践十号”和“慧眼”等科学卫星的联合科学研究和实验。

——联合研制并成功发射中意电磁监测试验卫星,持续推进中欧太阳风-磁层相互作用全景成像卫星、中法天文卫星、中意电磁监测卫星02星联合研制,与意大利、德国等国家开展先进天基太阳天文台、爱因斯坦探针、增强型X射线时变与偏振空间天文台等科学卫星有效载荷的联合研制和定标。

——利用中国-巴西空间天气联合实验室,共同建设南美地区空间环境综合监测研究平台。

(7) Space science

· Using science satellites including Wukong, Mozi, Shijian-10, and Insight, China has conducted joint scientific research and experiments with countries including Switzerland, Italy, Austria, the United Kingdom, and Japan.

· China co-developed and successfully launched the China-Italy Electromagnetic Monitoring Experiment Satellite. It has continued the joint development of the Sino-European Panoramic Imaging Satellite for Solar Wind and Magnetosphere Interaction, Sino-French Astronomic Satellite, and China-Italy Electromagnetic Monitoring Experiment Satellite 02. It has joined countries including Italy and Germany in developing and calibrating the payloads of satellites such as the advanced space-based solar observatory, Einstein Probe, and enhanced X-ray timing and polarimetry observatory.

· Using the China-Brazil Joint Laboratory for Space Weather, it co-built the space environment monitoring and research platform for South America.

 

8.人才与学术交流。

——参与国际宇航联合会、国际空间研究委员会、国际宇航科学院、国际空间法学会等活动,举办全球空间探索大会、全球卫星导航系统国际委员会第十三届大会、中国/联合国航天助力可持续发展大会、文昌国际航空航天论坛、珠海论坛、北斗规模应用国际峰会、风云气象卫星国际用户大会等。

——助力发展中国家人才培养。依托联合国空间科技教育亚太区域中心(中国)为60余个国家培养了近千名航天人才,并建立“一带一路”航天创新联盟和中俄工科大学联盟;通过发展中国家技术培训班等渠道,促进遥感与导航方向的人才交流。

——通过中欧空间科学研讨会、中欧空间科技合作对话、中欧“龙计划”等渠道,促进空间科学、遥感与导航方向的科技交流。

(8) Personnel and academic exchanges

· China has taken part in the activities organized by the International Astronautical Federation, International Committee on Space Research, International Academy of Astronautics, and International Institute of Space Law. It has hosted the 2017 Global Space Exploration Conference, the 13th Meeting of the International Committee on Global Navigation Satellite Systems, the United Nations/China Forum on Space Solutions: Realizing the Sustainable Development Goals, the Wenchang International Aviation and Aerospace Forum, the Zhuhai Forum, the International Summit on BDS Applications, and the Fengyun Satellite User Conference.

· China has helped developing countries train professionals. Through the Regional Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in Asia and the Pacific (China) (Affiliated to the United Nations), it has trained almost 1,000 space-industry professionals for more than 60 countries, and established the "Belt and Road" Aerospace Innovation Alliance and the Association of Sino-Russian Technical Universities. It has also promoted personnel exchanges in remote-sensing and navigation technology through the International Training Program and other channels.

· China has promoted scientific and technological exchanges in the fields of space science, remote sensing and navigation through the China-Europe Space Science Bilateral Meeting, the China-EU-ESA Dialogue on Space Technology Cooperation, and the Dragon Programme - a joint undertaking between ESA and the Ministry of Science and Technology of China.

 

(三)未来合作重点

未来五年,中国将以更加积极开放的姿态,拓展双边、多边合作机制,在以下重点领域广泛开展国际空间交流与合作:

3. Key Areas for Future Cooperation

In the next five years China will be more open and active in broadening bilateral and multilateral cooperation mechanisms, and will engage in extensive international exchanges and cooperation in the following key areas:

 

1.外空全球治理。

——在联合国框架下,积极参与外空国际规则制定,共同应对外空活动长期可持续发展面临的挑战。

——积极参与空间环境治理、近地小天体监测与应对、行星保护、太空交通管理、空间资源开发利用等领域国际议题讨论和机制构建。

——开展空间环境治理合作,提高太空危机管控和综合治理效能,支持与俄、美等国及有关国际组织开展外空治理对话,推动亚太空间合作组织空间科学观测台建设。

(1) Global governance of outer space

· Under the framework of the United Nations, China will actively participate in formulating international rules regarding outer space, and will work together with other countries to address the challenges in ensuring long-term sustainability of outer space activities.

· China will actively participate in discussions on international issues and the development of relevant mechanisms, such as those in the fields of space environment governance, near-earth objects monitoring and response, planet protection, space traffic management, and the development and utilization of space resources.

· China will cooperate in space environment governance, improve the efficiency of space crisis management and comprehensive governance, conduct dialogue with Russia, the United States and other countries as well as relevant international organizations on outer space governance, and actively support the construction of APSCO's space science observatory.

 

2.载人航天。

——依托中国空间站,开展空间天文观测、地球科学研究,以及微重力环境下的空间科学实验。

——推动开展航天员联合选拔培训、联合飞行等更广泛的国际合作。

(2) Manned spaceflight

· China will employ its space station to conduct space-based astronomical observations, earth science and research, and space science experiments under conditions of microgravity.

· China will promote more extensive international cooperation in astronaut selection and training, joint flights and other fields.

 

3.北斗导航。

——持续参加联合国全球卫星导航系统国际委员会有关活动,推动建立公正合理的卫星导航秩序。

——积极推进北斗卫星导航系统和其他卫星导航系统、星基增强系统的兼容与互操作合作,促进全球卫星导航系统兼容共用。

——重点推进北斗卫星导航系统应用合作与交流,共享北斗系统成熟应用解决方案,助力各国经济社会发展。

(3) BeiDou Navigation Satellite System

· China will continue to participate in the activities of the UN's International Committee on Global Navigation Satellite Systems and promote the establishment of a fair and reasonable satellite navigation order.

· China will actively improve compatibility and interoperability of global satellite navigation systems such as the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System and other such systems as well as satellite-based augmentation systems.

· China will prioritize cooperation and exchanges, and share with others mature solutions, on the application of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, thereby boosting the socio-economic development of partner countries.

 

4.深空探测。

——重点推进国际月球科研站合作,欢迎国际伙伴在项目的各个阶段、在任务的各个层级参与国际月球科研站的论证和建设。

——拓展在小行星、行星际探测领域合作。

(4) Deep-space exploration

· China will advance cooperation on the international lunar research station project. It welcomes international partners to participate in the research and construction of the station at any stage and level of the mission.

· It will expand cooperation in the fields of asteroid and interplanetary exploration.

 

5.空间技术。

——支持卫星工程和技术合作,完成埃及二号卫星联合研制,发射中法天文卫星、中意电磁监测卫星02星,推动中巴(西)资源系列后续卫星合作。

——开展航天测控支持合作,继续开展与欧洲空间局在测控支持领域合作,进一步推进地面站网建设。

——支持商业航天国际合作,包括发射服务,以及卫星整星、卫星及运载火箭分系统、零部件、电子元器件、地面设施设备等产品技术合作。重点推动巴基斯坦通信卫星研制,以及巴基斯坦航天中心、埃及航天城建设合作进程。

(5) Space technology

· China will support cooperation on satellite engineering and technology. It will complete the joint research and development of MisrSat-2, and launch the SVOM (Space-based multiband astronomical Variable Objects Monitor), and the China-Italy Electromagnetic Monitoring Experiment Satellite 02. It will press ahead with follow-up cooperation in the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellites program.

· China will engage in cooperation on space TT&C support. It will continue to cooperate with the European Space Agency in the field of TT&C support, and further advance the building of ground station networks.

· China will support international cooperation on commercial spaceflight, including:

(a) launching services;

(b) technical cooperation on whole satellites, on sub-systems, spare parts, and electronic components of satellites and launch vehicles, on ground facilities and equipment, and on other related items.

It will give priority to developing communications satellites for Pakistan and to cooperating on the construction of the Pakistan Space Center and Egypt's Space City.

 

6.空间应用。

——推动中国气象卫星数据全球应用,支持中法海洋卫星数据向世界气象卫星组织开放,推动“张衡一号”电磁监测卫星数据全球共享和科学应用。

——推动“一带一路”空间信息走廊建设,加强遥感、导航、通信卫星的应用合作。

——推动亚太空间合作组织数据共享服务平台建设。

——推动金砖国家遥感卫星星座建设与应用。

——参与空间气候观测平台建设与实践。

(6) Space applications

· China will promote global application of data from Chinese meteorological satellites, support the provision of data from the China-France Oceanography Satellite to the World Meteorological Organization, and promote global sharing and scientific application of the data obtained by Zhangheng-1, China's seismo-electromagnetic satellite.

· China will press ahead with the construction of the Belt and Road Initiative Space Information Corridor, and strengthen cooperation on the application of remote-sensing, navigation, and communications satellites.

· China will press ahead with the construction of the data-sharing service platform of APSCO.

· China will advance the construction and application of the BRICS remote-sensing satellite constellation.

· China will participate in the construction and use of the Space Climate Observatory.

 

7.空间科学。

——依托深空探测工程,利用地外样品和探测数据,开展空间环境、行星起源演化等领域的联合研究;通过联合国向国际社会开放“嫦娥四号”卫星科学数据。

——推动空间科学卫星联合研制,开展以暗物质粒子、太阳爆发活动及其影响、空间引力波等为重点的空间科学探索研究。

8.人才与学术交流。

——开展航天领域人员交流与培训。

——举办高水平国际学术交流会议和论坛。

(7) Space science

· By means of the deep-space exploration project, and using extraterrestrial samples and exploration data, China will conduct joint research in fields such as the space environment and planetary origin and evolution. Through the United Nations scientific data obtained by the Chang'e 4 satellite will be made available to the international community.

· China will boost joint R&D on space science satellites and research subjects such as dark matter particles, solar burst activities and their influence, and spatial gravitational wave.

(8) Personnel and academic exchanges

· China will conduct personnel exchanges and training in the space industry.

· China will hold high-level international academic exchange conferences and forums.

 

结束语

当今世界,越来越多的国家高度重视并大力发展航天事业,世界航天进入大发展大变革的新阶段,将对人类社会发展产生重大而深远的影响。

站在全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程的历史起点上,中国将加快推进航天强国建设,秉持人类命运共同体理念,继续同各国一道,积极参与外空全球治理与交流合作,维护外空安全,促进外空活动长期可持续发展,为保护地球家园、增进民生福祉、服务人类文明进步作出新的更大贡献。

Conclusion

In today's world, a growing number of countries are seeing the importance of space and are investing more on their space programs. Space industry around the world has entered a new stage of rapid development and profound transformation that will have a major and far-reaching impact on human society.

At this new historical start towards a modern socialist country, China will accelerate work on its space industry. Guided by the concept of a global community of shared future, it will work actively with other countries to carry out international space exchanges and cooperation, safeguard outer space security, and strive for long-term sustainability in activities related to outer space. By doing so, China will contribute more to protecting the earth, improving people's wellbeing, and serving human progress.

中国日报网英语点津版权说明:凡注明来源为“中国日报网英语点津:XXX(署名)”的原创作品,除与中国日报网签署英语点津内容授权协议的网站外,其他任何网站或单位未经允许不得非法盗链、转载和使用,违者必究。如需使用,请与010-84883561联系;凡本网注明“来源:XXX(非英语点津)”的作品,均转载自其它媒体,目的在于传播更多信息,其他媒体如需转载,请与稿件来源方联系,如产生任何问题与本网无关;本网所发布的歌曲、电影片段,版权归原作者所有,仅供学习与研究,如果侵权,请提供版权证明,以便尽快删除。
订阅和关注
人气排行