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500余处文物因洪灾受损 该怎么保护?

中国日报网 2020-07-20 12:19

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国家文物局表示,受强降雨影响,近期多地发生严重洪涝或滑坡、泥石流等地质灾害,部分文物、博物馆单位受损严重。

2020年6月28日,重庆濯水古城的民居被洪水淹没。(图片来源:新华社)

 

Statistics from the National Cultural Heritage Administration showed that by Thursday, more than 500 unmovable cultural relics such as monuments, ancient architecture and bridges in 11 provincial-level regions had been destroyed or damaged by floodwater. Seventy-six of the sites are under national-level protection, and 187 under provincial-level protection.
国家文物局的数据显示,截至7月16日,11省份有500余处不可移动文物因洪灾受到损坏,其中涉及全国重点文物保护单位76处、省级文物保护单位187处。受损文物包括纪念碑、古建筑以及桥梁等。

【单词讲解】

在考古领域挖掘出来的“(工具、武器、饰品等具有考古或历史价值的)文物”一般用artifact。而我们常见的cultural relics里面的relic则指“遗迹、遗留物、遗址”等。我们可以说,在表示“历史遗迹”的时候,relic涵盖的范围要比artifact要广一些,而且这两个词一般都用复数形式。


国家文物局副局长宋新潮介绍,长江流域省份文物受损情况较为严重,其中江西160处,安徽144处,湖南62处,四川41处,广西35处,湖北31处。

The administration has allocated about 3.5 million yuan to a special fund for cultural heritage rescue work in the provinces.
国家文物局已向文物受灾严重的省份拨付文物应急抢险资金350万元。

 


文物受损成因分析

文物本身防灾抗灾能力弱

"Floodwaters have been a major threat to the safety of Chinese cultural heritage throughout history," Song said. "And these old bridges, city walls and houses often have a poor capacity to counter disasters due to the lasting influence of natural erosion and human activities.
洪涝等自然地质灾害历来是危害文物安全的重要因素。古桥梁、古城墙、古民居等文物建筑年代悠远,受自然环境侵蚀和人为活动影响,抵御自然地质灾害能力弱。

Ancient Chinese architecture is usually made of wood, tiles and bricks. When reservoirs in the upper reaches discharge waters, these heritage sites cannot withstand the impact of torrents.
我国文物建筑多为木构架结构,主要建筑材料为木材、砖瓦等,一些上游水库泄洪排涝,这些文物无法承受大流量洪水的冲击。

 

防灾减灾技术研究不足

"Speaking of ancient architecture, cultural heritage experts and architects have usually focused on studying their layout, historical context and the structure of components," he said. "However, their capacity to withstand natural disasters has often received less attention, and we have thus lacked a comprehensive system to introduce disaster-prevention technology into renovation work and training programs."
我国文物、建筑学界对文物建筑的保护研究集中在建筑格局、形制、结构等方面,对文物自身具有的防灾抗灾功能作用关注不够,未能形成系统的文物防灾理念和技术体系,文物修缮中防灾减灾措施缺少针对性指导。

 

如何保护文物


有效防范是基础

He said the administration will coordinate with different government departments to include the safety of heritage sites in the national disaster prevention and mitigation system, with cultural relics to be treated as "key properties", like human life.
国家文物局要督导各地将文物防灾减灾纳入防灾减灾体系,将文物作为和生命一样的重要财产来看待。


发挥文物自身防灾功能

For instance, the Forbidden City in Beijing, China's former imperial palace, has seldom been flooded since its founding 600 years ago due to its superb sewage system. And the sewage system in the historical neighborhood in Ganzhou, Jiangxi, was designed during the Song Dynasty and still functions well today.
北京故宫科学的排水系统使其600余年始终未遭水害,江西赣州古城“福寿沟”是宋代城市排水系统,至今仍发挥着重要的防汛抗灾作用。

"An important task is to conduct in-depth studies of the extraordinary capacities of ancient Chinese cities and take full advantage of those functions today," he said.
当前一项重要任务是组织开展专项系统研究,深入挖掘一些古城本身具有的独特防灾体系和抗灾功能,充分发挥其在现代城乡防灾减灾中的重要作用。

 

【相关词汇】

文化遗产 cultural heritage

文化自然双重遗产 cultural and natural heritage

文化多样性 cultural diversity

世界遗产名录 World Heritage List

申遗 bid for the World Heritage List

文化资源整合 integration of cultural resources

 

参考来源:新华网

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