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[ 2012-06-04 15:23]     字号 [] [] []  
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Print books may be under siege from the rise of e-books. but they have a tenacious hold on a particular group: children and toddlers. Their parents are insisting this next generation of readers spend their early years with old-fashioned books. This is the case even with parents who themselves are die-hard downloaders of books onto Kindles, iPads, laptops and phones. They freely acknowledge their digital double standard, saying they want their children to be surrounded by print books. to experience turning physical pages as they learn about shapes, colors and animals. Parents also say they- like cuddling up with their child and a book, and fear that a shiny gadget might get all the attention. Also, if little Joey is going to spit up, a book may be easier to clean than a tablet computer.

As the adult book world turns digital at a faster rate than publishers expected, sales of e-books for titles aimed at children under 8 have barely budged. They represent Jess than 5 percent of total annual sales of children's books, several publishers estimated, compared with more than 25 percent in some categories of adult books. Many print books are also bought as gifts, since the delights of an Amazon gift card are lost on most 6-year-olds.




Like most creatures on earth. humans come equipped with a circadian clock, a roughly 24-hour internal timer that keeps our sleep patterns in sync with our planet At least until genetics. age and our personal habits get in the way. Even though the average adult needs eight hours of sleep per night, there are "short-sleepers," who need far less. and morning people, who, research shows. often come from families of other morning people. Then there's the rest of us. who rely on alarm clocks.

For those who fantasize about greeting the dawn. there is hope. Sleep experts say that with a little discipline (well actually, a lot of discipline), most people can reset their circadian clocks. But it's not as simple as forcing yourself to go to bed earlier (you can't make a wide-awake brain sleep). It requires inducing a sort of jet lag without leaving your time zone. And sticking it out until your body clock resets itself. And then not resetting it again.

To start, move up your wake-up time by 20 minutes a day. If you regularly rise at 8 a.m., but really want to get moving at 6 a.m., set the alarm for 7:40 on Monday. The next day, set it for 7:20 and so on. Then, after you wake up, don't linger in bed. Hit yourself with light. In theory, you'll gradually get sleepy about 20 minutes earlier each night, and you can facilitate the transition by avoiding extra light exposure from computers or televisions as you near bedtime.

But recalibrating your inner clock requires more commitment than many people care to give. For some. it's almost impossible. Very early risers and longtime night owls have a hard time ever changing. Night-shift workers also struggle because they don't get the environmental and social cues that help adjust the circadian clock.







The causes of inequality are many and varied, and may be broadly grouped into three factors. The first is social condition or family background. In China, for example, someone born and bred in the city usually earns a higher income and enjoys better social services. The second is aptitude. The cleverer or stronger ones usually earn more and enjoy better conditions than the lesser endowed. The final one is ambition and diligence. All things being equal, someone who aims higher and works harder often earns more.




Since 1750, the world has seen four industrial revolutions. The first one took place in Britain; and China missed the boat. The second one occurred in the latter half of the 19th century; and China missed the boat. The third one was driven by the revolution in communication technology in the second half of the 20th Century. This time, Chinese leaders realized that it was a historic moment of change, and China caught the wave.

The 21st century is receiving the Fourth Industrial Revolution-the Green Revolution, symbolized by this global move to reduce emission. This time, we hope that China can be the innovator, the leader and driver running head-to-head with the U.S., Europe and Japan. To achieve this, China has to accomplish two things transition from a high carbon economy to a low carbon economy; second, participation in global governance. i.e., to shift its focus from national governance to regional and global governance.






(来源:北外李长栓老师博客 编辑:Julie)