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共建“一带一路”倡议:进展、贡献与展望

新华网 2019-04-23 10:59

推进“一带一路”建设工作领导小组办公室22日发表《共建“一带一路”倡议:进展、贡献与展望》报告。全文如下:

 

共建“一带一路”倡议:进展、贡献与展望
The Belt and Road Initiative Progress, Contributions and Prospects

 

推进“一带一路”建设工作领导小组办公室
Office of the Leading Group for Promoting the Belt and Road Initiative

2019年

 


前言
Preface

 

2013年9月和10月,中国国家主席习近平在出访哈萨克斯坦和印度尼西亚时先后提出共建“丝绸之路经济带”和“21世纪海上丝绸之路”的重大倡议。中国政府成立了推进“一带一路”建设工作领导小组,并在中国国家发展改革委设立领导小组办公室。2015年3月,中国发布《推动共建丝绸之路经济带和21世纪海上丝绸之路的愿景与行动》;2017年5月,首届“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛在北京成功召开。中国还先后举办了博鳌亚洲论坛年会、上海合作组织青岛峰会、中非合作论坛北京峰会、中国国际进口博览会等。5年多来,共建“一带一路”倡议得到了越来越多国家和国际组织的积极响应,受到国际社会广泛关注,影响力日益扩大。
When visiting Kazakhstan and Indonesia in September and October of 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping raised the initiative of jointly building the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road (hereinafter referred to as the Belt and Road, or B&R). The Chinese government then set up the Leading Group for Promoting the Belt and Road Initiative with an administrative office under the National Development and Reform Commission. In March 2015, the Chinese government published the “Vision and Actions on Jointly Building Silk Road Eco- nomic Belt and 21st Century Maritime Silk Road”. In May 2017, the first Belt and Road Forum for International Co- operation was convened in Beijing. China also hosted the Boao Forum for Asia annual conferences, the Shanghai Co- operation Organization (SCO) Qingdao Summit, the 2018 Beijing Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC), and the China International Import Expo. Over the past five years, the Belt and Road Initiative has won positive responses from numerous countries and interna- tional organizations and has attracted worldwide attention. Its influence is growing.


共建“一带一路”倡议源自中国,更属于世界;根植于历史,更面向未来;重点面向亚欧非大陆,更向所有伙伴开放。共建“一带一路”跨越不同国家地域、不同发展阶段、不同历史传统、不同文化宗教、不同风俗习惯,是和平发展、经济合作倡议,不是搞地缘政治联盟或军事同盟;是开放包容、共同发展进程,不是要关起门来搞小圈子或者“中国俱乐部”;不以意识形态划界,不搞零和游戏,只要各国有意愿,都欢迎参与。共建“一带一路”倡议以共商共建共享为原则,以和平合作、开放包容、互学互鉴、互利共赢的丝绸之路精神为指引,以政策沟通、设施联通、贸易畅通、资金融通、民心相通为重点,已经从理念转化为行动,从愿景转化为现实,从倡议转化为全球广受欢迎的公共产品。
The Belt and Road Initiative originated in China, but it belongs to the world. It is rooted in history, but oriented toward the future. It focuses on Asia, Europe and Africa, but is open to all partners. It spans different countries and regions, different stages of development, different histori- cal traditions, different cultures and religions, and different customs and lifestyles. It is an initiative for peaceful devel- opment and economic cooperation, rather than a geopoliti- cal or military alliance. It is a process of open, inclusive and common development, not an exclusionary bloc or a “China club”. It neither differentiates between countries by ideology nor plays the zero-sum game. Countries are wel- come to join in the initiative if they so will. The Belt and Road Initiative upholds the principles of extensive consultation, joint contribution, and shared benefits. It follows a Silk Road spirit featuring peace and cooperation, openness and inclusiveness, mutual learning and mutual benefit. It focuses on policy coordination, con- nectivity of infrastructure, unimpeded trade, financial integration, and closer people-to-people ties. It has turned ideas into actions and vision into reality, and the initiative itself into a public product widely welcomed by the international community.


2018年8月,习近平主席在北京主持召开推进“一带一路”建设工作5周年座谈会,提出“一带一路”建设要从谋篇布局的“大写意”转入精耕细作的“工笔画”,向高质量发展转变,造福沿线国家人民,推动构建人类命运共同体。
When presiding over a symposium in August 2018 that marked the fifth anniversary of the Belt and Road Initiative, President Xi said that in advancing the initiative, we should transition from making high-level plans to intensive and meticulous implementation, so as to realize high-quality development, bring benefits to local people, and build a global community of shared future.


一、进展
I. Progress

2013年以来,共建“一带一路”倡议以政策沟通、设施联通、贸易畅通、资金融通和民心相通为主要内容扎实推进,取得明显成效,一批具有标志性的早期成果开始显现,参与各国得到了实实在在的好处,对共建“一带一路”的认同感和参与度不断增强。
Since 2013, the Belt and Road Initiative, with policy coordination, connectivity of infrastructure, unimpeded trade, financial integration and closer people-to-people ties as its main goals, has advanced in solid steps. Significant progress has been made, including a number of landmark early results. Participating countries have obtained tangible benefits, and their appreciation of and participation in the initiative is growing.


(一)政策沟通
1. Policy coordination


政策沟通是共建“一带一路”的重要保障,是形成携手共建行动的重要先导。5年多来,中国与有关国家和国际组织充分沟通协调,形成了共建“一带一路”的广泛国际合作共识。
Policy coordination is an important guarantee for this initiative, and an essential precondition for joint actions. Over the past five years or so, China has engaged in thor- ough communication and coordination with participating countries and international organizations, and reached a broad consensus on international cooperation for building the Belt and Road.

1.共建“一带一路”倡议载入国际组织重要文件。共建“一带一路”倡议及其核心理念已写入联合国、二十国集团、亚太经合组织以及其他区域组织等有关文件中。2015年7月,上海合作组织发表了《上海合作组织成员国元首乌法宣言》,支持关于建设“丝绸之路经济带”的倡议。2016年9月,《二十国集团领导人杭州峰会公报》通过关于建立“全球基础设施互联互通联盟”倡议。2016年11月,联合国193个会员国协商一致通过决议,欢迎共建“一带一路”等经济合作倡议,呼吁国际社会为“一带一路”建设提供安全保障环境。2017年3月,联合国安理会一致通过了第2344号决议,呼吁国际社会通过“一带一路”建设加强区域经济合作,并首次载入“人类命运共同体”理念。2018年,中拉论坛第二届部长级会议、中国-阿拉伯国家合作论坛第八届部长级会议、中非合作论坛峰会先后召开,分别形成了中拉《关于“一带一路”倡议的特别声明》、《中国和阿拉伯国家合作共建“一带一路”行动宣言》和《关于构建更加紧密的中非命运共同体的北京宣言》等重要成果文件。
1) The Belt and Road Initiative has been incorpo- rated into important documents of international orga- nizations. The initiative and its core concepts have been written into documents from the United Nations, G20, APEC and other international and regional organizations. In July 2015, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization issued the “Ufa Declaration of the Heads of State of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization”, showing support for the Silk Road Economic Belt initiative. In September 2016, the “G20 Leaders’ Communiqué” adopted at the G20 Hangzhou Summit endorsed an initiative to establish the Global In- frastructure Connectivity Alliance. In November 2016, the 193 UN member states adopted by consensus a resolution, welcoming the Belt and Road Initiative and other economic cooperation initiatives and urging the international commu- nity to ensure a secure environment for these initiatives. In March 2017, the UN Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 2344, calling on the international community to strengthen regional economic cooperation through the Belt and Road Initiative and other development initiatives, while for the first time enshrining the concept of “a com- munity of shared future for mankind”. In January 2018, the Second Ministerial Meeting of the Forum of China and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) was held in Santiago and adopted the “Special Declaration on the Belt and Road Initiative”. In July the same year, the Eighth Ministerial Meeting of the China- Arab States Cooperation Forum (CASCF) was convened in Beijing, which adopted the “Declaration of Action on China- Arab States Belt and Road Cooperation”. In September the FOCAC Beijing Summit adopted the “Beijing Declaration – Toward an Even Stronger China-Africa Community with a Shared Future” and the “Forum on China-Africa Coopera- tion Beijing Action Plan (2019-2021)”.


2.签署共建“一带一路”政府间合作文件的国家和国际组织数量逐年增加。在共建“一带一路”框架下,各参与国和国际组织本着求同存异原则,就经济发展规划和政策进行充分交流,协商制定经济合作规划和措施。截至2019年3月底,中国政府已与125个国家和29个国际组织签署173份合作文件。共建“一带一路”国家已由亚欧延伸至非洲、拉美、南太等区域。
2) More and more countries and international or- ganizations have signed intergovernmental cooperation agreements on the Belt and Road Initiative. In the B&R framework, all participating countries and international organizations, based on the principle of seeking com- mon ground while reserving differences, have exchanged views on economic development plans and policies and discussed and agreed economic cooperation plans and measures. By the end of March 2019, the Chinese govern- ment had signed 173 cooperation agreements with 125 countries and 29 international organizations. The Belt and Road has expanded from Asia and Europe to include more new participants in Africa, Latin America and the South Pacific.


3.共建“一带一路”专业领域对接合作有序推进。数字丝绸之路建设已成为共建“一带一路”的重要组成部分,中国与埃及、老挝、沙特阿拉伯、塞尔维亚、泰国、土耳其、阿联酋等国家共同发起《“一带一路”数字经济国际合作倡议》,与16个国家签署加强数字丝绸之路建设合作文件。中国发布《标准联通共建“一带一路”行动计划(2018-2020年)》,与49个国家和地区签署85份标准化合作协议。“一带一路”税收合作长效机制日趋成熟,中国组织召开“一带一路”税收合作会议,发布《阿斯塔纳“一带一路”税收合作倡议》,税收协定合作网络延伸至111个国家和地区。中国与49个沿线国家联合发布《关于进一步推进“一带一路”国家知识产权务实合作的联合声明》。中国组织召开“一带一路”法治合作国际论坛,发布《“一带一路”法治合作国际论坛共同主席声明》。中国组织召开“一带一路”能源部长会议,18个国家联合宣布建立“一带一路”能源合作伙伴关系。中国发布《共同推进“一带一路”建设农业合作的愿景与行动》、《“一带一路”建设海上合作设想》等。中国推动建立了国际商事法庭和“一站式”国际商事纠纷多元化解决机制。
3) Coordination and cooperation in specific fields of the Belt and Road Initiative have progressed steadily. The Digital Silk Road has become an important part of the Belt and Road Initiative. China has launched the “Belt and Road Digital Economy International Cooperation Initia- tive” with Egypt, Laos, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Thailand, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates. It has signed coop- eration agreements with 16 countries to strengthen the con- struction of the Digital Silk Road. China issued the “Action Plan on Belt and Road Standard Connectivity (2018-2020)”. It has signed 85 standardization cooperation agreements with 49 countries and regions. The long-term mechanism for tax cooperation between B&R countries is maturing. China co-organized the Belt and Road Initiative Tax Co- operation Conference (BRITCC) in May 2018, which published the “Astana Proposal by BRITCC Participating Jurisdictions for Enhancing Cooperation in Tax Matters”, signaling that the cooperation network has expanded to 111 countries and regions. China and 49 B&R countries pub- lished the “Joint Statement on Pragmatic Cooperation in the Field of Intellectual Property Among Countries Along the Belt and Road” in August 2018. In July 2018 China hosted the Forum on the Belt and Road Legal Cooperation, which published the “Statement of the Co-Chairs of the Fo- rum on the Belt and Road Legal Cooperation”. In October 2018 China hosted the Belt and Road Energy Ministerial Conference and 18 countries jointly announced building the B&R energy partnership. In addition, China published the “Vision and Action on Jointly Promoting Agricultural Cooperation on the Belt and Road” in May 2017 and the “Vision for Maritime Cooperation Under the Belt and Road Initiative” in June the same year. China has been a strong proponent of the establishment of international commercial courts and a “one-stop” diversified resolution mechanism for international commercial disputes.


(二)设施联通
2. Infrastructure connectivity


设施联通是共建“一带一路”的优先方向。在尊重相关国家主权和安全关切的基础上,由各国共同努力,以铁路、公路、航运、航空、管道、空间综合信息网络等为核心的全方位、多层次、复合型基础设施网络正在加快形成,区域间商品、资金、信息、技术等交易成本大大降低,有效促进了跨区域资源要素的有序流动和优化配置,实现了互利合作、共赢发展。
Infrastructure connectivity is high on the B&R agenda. While committed to respecting the sovereignty and secu- rity concerns of all relevant countries, B&R countries have made concerted efforts to build an all-round, multi-level, and composite infrastructure framework centered on rail- ways, roads, shipping, aviation, pipelines, and integrated space information networks. This framework is taking shape rapidly. It has greatly reduced the transaction costs of products, capital, information, and technologies flow- ing between regions, and effectively promoted the orderly flow and optimal allocation of resources among different regions. Thus it will help achieve mutually beneficial coop- eration and common development.


1.国际经济合作走廊和通道建设取得明显进展。新亚欧大陆桥、中蒙俄、中国-中亚-西亚、中国-中南半岛、中巴和孟中印缅等六大国际经济合作走廊将亚洲经济圈与欧洲经济圈联系在一起,为建立和加强各国互联互通伙伴关系,构建高效畅通的亚欧大市场发挥了重要作用。
1) Significant progress has been made in the con- struction of international economic cooperation cor- ridors and passageways. The six major corridors for international economic cooperation – the New Eurasian Land Bridge, and the China-Mongolia-Russia, China-Central Asia-West Asia, China-Indochina Peninsula, China-Pakistan, and Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar economic corridors – connect the Asian economic circle with the European eco- nomic circle. They have played an important role in estab- lishing and strengthening connectivity partnerships between participating countries and building an efficient and smooth Eurasian market.


——新亚欧大陆桥经济走廊。5年多来,新亚欧大陆桥经济走廊区域合作日益深入,将开放包容、互利共赢的伙伴关系提升到新的水平,有力推动了亚欧两大洲经济贸易交流。《中国-中东欧国家合作布达佩斯纲要》和《中国-中东欧国家合作索菲亚纲要》对外发布,中欧互联互通平台和欧洲投资计划框架下的务实合作有序推进。匈塞铁路塞尔维亚境内贝旧段开工。中国西部-西欧国际公路(中国西部-哈萨克斯坦-俄罗斯-西欧)基本建成。
– New Eurasian Land Bridge. Over the past five years or so, regional cooperation through the New Eurasian Land Bridge has widened, enhancing partnerships featuring openness, inclusiveness, and mutual benefits to a higher level and driving forward economic and trade exchanges between Asia and Europe. The “Budapest Guidelines for Cooperation Between China and Central and Eastern Euro- pean Countries” and the “Sofia Guidelines for Cooperation Between China and Central and Eastern European Coun- tries” have been published, showing that steady progress is being made in pragmatic cooperation in the frameworks of the China-EU Connectivity Platform and the Investment Plan for Europe. Construction has started on the Belgrade- Stara Pazova section of the Hungary-Serbia Railway in Serbia. The Western China-Western European International Expressway connecting western China, Kazakhstan, Russia and Western Europe is basically complete.


——中蒙俄经济走廊。中蒙俄三国积极推动形成以铁路、公路和边境口岸为主体的跨境基础设施联通网络。2018年,三国签署《关于建立中蒙俄经济走廊联合推进机制的谅解备忘录》,进一步完善了三方合作工作机制。中俄同江-下列宁斯阔耶界河铁路桥中方侧工程已于2018年10月完工。黑河-布拉戈维申斯克界河公路桥建设进展顺利。中俄企业联合体基本完成莫喀高铁项目初步设计。三国签署并核准的《关于沿亚洲公路网国际道路运输政府间协定》正式生效。中蒙俄(二连浩特)跨境陆缆系统已建成。
– China-Mongolia-Russia Economic Corridor. China, Mongolia, and Russia have made positive efforts to build a cross-border infrastructure connectivity network consist- ing mainly of railways, roads and border ports. In 2018, the three countries signed the “Memorandum of Under- standing on Establishing a Joint Mechanism for Advancing the China-Mongolia-Russia Economic Corridor”, making further progress in improving the working mechanism of the tripartite cooperation. China’s side of the Tongjiang- Nizhneleninskoye railway bridge was completed in Oc- tober 2018. Construction of the Heihe-Blagoveshchensk road bridge is progressing smoothly. A Sino-Russian enter- prise consortium has completed preliminary design of the Moscow-Kazan High-Speed Railway. The “Intergovern- mental Agreement on International Road Transport Along the Asian Highway Network” signed and approved by the three countries has entered into force. The China-Mongolia- Russia cross-border terrestrial cable system has been com- pleted.


——中国-中亚-西亚经济走廊。5年多来,该走廊在能源合作、设施互联互通、经贸与产能合作等领域合作不断加深。中国与哈萨克斯坦、乌兹别克斯坦、土耳其等国的双边国际道路运输协定,以及中巴哈吉、中哈俄、中吉乌等多边国际道路运输协议或协定相继签署,中亚、西亚地区基础设施建设不断完善。中国-沙特投资合作论坛围绕共建“一带一路”倡议与沙特“2030愿景”进行产业对接,签署合作协议总价值超过280亿美元。中国与伊朗发挥在各领域的独特优势,加强涵盖道路、基础设施、能源等领域的对接合作。
– China-Central Asia-West Asia Economic Corridor. Over the past five years or so, cooperation has advanced in energy, infrastructure connectivity, economy and trade, and industrial capacity in this corridor’s framework. China has signed bilateral agreements on international road transport with Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkey, and other countries, as well as China-Pakistan-Kazakhstan-Kyrgyzstan, China- Kazakhstan-Russia, China-Kyrgyzstan-Uzbekistan, and some other multilateral agreements on international road transport, constantly improving infrastructure construction in Central Asia and West Asia. The China-Saudi Arabia Investment Cooperation Forum has promoted industrial complementarity between the Belt and Road Initiative and Saudi Vision 2030, and has concluded cooperation agree- ments worth more than US$28 billion. China and Iran have drawn on their strengths in various fields and are strength- ening their combined forces in the fields of roads, infra- structure and energy.


——中国-中南半岛经济走廊。5年多来,该走廊在基础设施互联互通、跨境经济合作区建设等方面取得积极进展。昆(明)曼(谷)公路全线贯通,中老铁路、中泰铁路等项目稳步推进。中老经济走廊合作建设开始启动,泰国“东部经济走廊”与“一带一路”倡议加快对接,中国与柬老缅越泰(CLMVT)经济合作稳步推进。中国-东盟(10+1)合作机制、澜湄合作机制、大湄公河次区域经济合作(GMS)发挥的积极作用越来越明显。
– China-Indochina Peninsula Economic Corridor. Over the past five years or so, progress has been made in infrastructure connectivity and construction of cross-border economic cooperation zones through this corridor. The Kunming-Bangkok Expressway has been completed, while the China-Laos and China-Thailand railways and some other projects are well underway. Cooperation has started in building the China-Laos Economic Corridor. More intensive efforts have been made to dovetail Thailand’s Eastern Eco- nomic Corridor and the Belt and Road Initiative. Economic cooperation between China and Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Viet Nam and Thailand is advancing steadily. Positive roles for the China-ASEAN (10+1) cooperation mechanism, Lancang- Mekong cooperation mechanism, and Greater Mekong Subre- gion (GMS) Economic Cooperation are becoming clearer.


——中巴经济走廊。以能源、交通基础设施、产业园区合作、瓜达尔港为重点的合作布局确定实施。中国与巴基斯坦组建了中巴经济走廊联合合作委员会,建立了定期会晤机制。一批项目顺利推进,瓜达尔港疏港公路、白沙瓦至卡拉奇高速公路(苏库尔至木尔坦段)、喀喇昆仑公路升级改造二期(哈维连-塔科特段)、拉合尔轨道交通橙线、卡西姆港1320兆瓦电站等重点项目开工建设,部分项目已发挥效益。中巴经济走廊正在开启第三方合作,更多国家已经或有意愿参与其中。
– China-Pakistan Economic Corridor. A coopera- tion plan focusing on energy, transportation infrastructure, industrial park cooperation, and Gwadar Port has been implemented in the framework of this corridor. China and Pakistan have established the Joint Cooperation Committee of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, which meets regularly. Smooth progress has been made in a number of projects. Key projects, such as the road to the Gwadar Port, Peshawar-Karachi Motorway (Sukkur-Multan section), Karakoram Highway Phase II (Havelian-Thakot section), Lahore Orange Line Metro, and 1,320MW Coal-Fired Power Plants at Port Qasim have been launched. Some projects have already brought benefits. The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor is open to third parties for cooperation, and more countries have joined or expressed a willingness to participate.


——孟中印缅经济走廊。5年多来,孟中印缅四方在联合工作组框架下共同推进走廊建设,在机制和制度建设、基础设施互联互通、贸易和产业园区合作、国际金融开放合作、人文交流与民生合作等方面研拟并规划了一批重点项目。中缅两国共同成立了中缅经济走廊联合委员会,签署了关于共建中缅经济走廊的谅解备忘录、木姐-曼德勒铁路项目可行性研究文件和皎漂经济特区深水港项目建设框架协议。
– Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar Economic Cor- ridor. Over the past five years or so, the four countries have worked together to build this corridor in the framework of joint working groups, and have planned a number of major projects in institutional development, infrastructure connec- tivity, cooperation in trade and industrial parks, cooperation and opening up in the financial market, cultural exchange, and cooperation in enhancing people’s wellbeing. A Joint Com- mittee of the China-Myanmar Economic Corridor has been established. The two countries have also signed an MoU on building the China-Myanmar Economic Corridor, as well as papers on a feasibility study for the Muse-Mandalay Railway, and the Framework Agreement on the Kyauk Phyu Special Economic Zone Deep-Sea Port Project.


2.基础设施互联互通水平大幅提升。“道路通,百业兴”。基础设施投入不足是发展中国家经济发展的瓶颈,加快设施联通建设是共建“一带一路”的关键领域和核心内容。
2) Infrastructure connectivity has been remarkably enhanced. “Access to roads will enable all sectors of the economy to prosper.” Insufficient infrastructure investment is a bottleneck for economic development in developing countries. Accelerating infrastructure connectivity is a key area and core goal of the Belt and Road Initiative.


——铁路合作方面。以中老铁路、中泰铁路、匈塞铁路、雅万高铁等合作项目为重点的区际、洲际铁路网络建设取得重大进展。泛亚铁路东线、巴基斯坦1号铁路干线升级改造、中吉乌铁路等项目正积极推进前期研究,中国-尼泊尔跨境铁路已完成预可行性研究。中欧班列初步探索形成了多国协作的国际班列运行机制。中国、白俄罗斯、德国、哈萨克斯坦、蒙古、波兰和俄罗斯等7国铁路公司签署了《关于深化中欧班列合作协议》。截至2018年底,中欧班列已经联通亚欧大陆16个国家的108个城市,累计开行1.3万列,运送货物超过110万标箱,中国开出的班列重箱率达94%,抵达中国的班列重箱率达71%。与沿线国家开展口岸通关协调合作、提升通关便利,平均查验率和通关时间下降了50%。
– Railways
Major progress has been made in building inter-regional and intercontinental railway networks focusing on such cooperation projects as the China-Laos Railway, China- Thailand Railway, Hungary-Serbia Railway, and Jakarta- Bandung High-Speed Railway. Preliminary research has advanced on the eastern route of the Pan-Asia Railway Network, the upgrade of Pakistan’s Karachi-Peshawar Railway Line (also referred to as Main Line 1 or ML-1), and the China-Kyrgyzstan- Uzbekistan Railway. A pre-feasibility study on a China- Nepal cross-border railway has been completed. After preliminary work on China Railway Express cargo trains, an international railway operation mechanism with cooperation among multiple countries has been established. Railway companies of China, Belarus, Germany, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Poland, and Russia have signed an agreement on deeper cooperation in China-Europe rail service. By the end of 2018, China-Europe rail service had connected 108 cities in 16 countries in Asia and Europe. A total of 13,000 trains had carried more than 1.1 million TEUs. Among the trains starting from China, 94 percent were fully loaded; and among those arriving in China, 71 percent were fully loaded. China has cooperated with other B&R countries in cus- toms clearance to make it more convenient and efficient for the operation of the trains. The average inspection rate and customs clearance turnover time have both decreased by 50 percent.


——公路合作方面。中蒙俄、中吉乌、中俄(大连-新西伯利亚)、中越国际道路直达运输试运行活动先后成功举办。2018年2月,中吉乌国际道路运输实现常态化运行。中越北仑河公路二桥建成通车。中国正式加入《国际公路运输公约》(TIR公约)。中国与15个沿线国家签署了包括《上海合作组织成员国政府间国际道路运输便利化协定》在内的18个双多边国际运输便利化协定。《大湄公河次区域便利货物及人员跨境运输协定》实施取得积极进展。
– Roads
Trial operations have been carried out on nonstop trans- port on the China-Mongolia-Russia, China-Kyrgyzstan- Uzbekistan, China-Russia (Dalian-Novosibirsk) and China-Viet Nam roads. In February 2018, regular operation began on the China-Kyrgyzstan-Uzbekistan highway. China- Viet Nam Beilun River Bridge II has been completed and opened to traffic. China formally joined the Convention on International Transport of Goods Under Cover of TIR Carnets (TIR Convention). It has signed 18 bilateral and multilateral international transport facilitation agreements with 15 B&R countries, including the “Intergovernmental Agreement of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Member States on the Facilitation of International Road Transport”. Positive progress has been made in implementing the GMS “Agree- ment for the Facilitation of Cross-Border Transport of Goods and People”.


——港口合作方面。巴基斯坦瓜达尔港开通集装箱定期班轮航线,起步区配套设施已完工,吸引30多家企业入园。斯里兰卡汉班托塔港经济特区已完成园区产业定位、概念规划等前期工作。希腊比雷埃夫斯港建成重要中转枢纽,三期港口建设即将完工。阿联酋哈利法港二期集装箱码头已于2018年12月正式开港。中国与47个沿线国家签署了38个双边和区域海运协定。中国宁波航交所不断完善“海上丝绸之路航运指数”,发布了16+1贸易指数和宁波港口指数。
– Ports
In Pakistan’s Gwadar Port, routes for regular container liners have been opened and supporting facilities in the starting area of the Gwadar Free Trade Zone completed, attracting more than 30 companies into the area. Prelimi- nary work has been completed for Sri Lanka’s Hamban- tota Port Special Economic Zone, including defining the zone’s industrial functions and making conceptual plans. An important transit hub has been completed at the Port of Piraeus in Greece, and Phase III construction is to be completed. Khalifa Port Container Terminal Phase II in the United Arab Emirates officially opened in December 2018. China has signed 38 bilateral and regional shipping agree- ments with 47 B&R countries. China’s Ningbo Shipping Exchange has made constant efforts to improve the Mari- time Silk Road Freight Index and released the China-CEEC Trade Index (CCTI) and the Ningbo Port Index.


——航空运输方面。中国与126个国家和地区签署了双边政府间航空运输协定。与卢森堡、俄罗斯、亚美尼亚、印度尼西亚、柬埔寨、孟加拉国、以色列、蒙古、马来西亚、埃及等国家扩大了航权安排。5年多来,中国与沿线国家新增国际航线1239条,占新开通国际航线总量的69.1%。
– Air transport
China has signed bilateral intergovernmental air trans- port agreements with 126 countries and regions. It has ex- panded arrangements for air traffic rights with Luxembourg, Russia, Armenia, Indonesia, Cambodia, Bangladesh, Israel, Mongolia, Malaysia, and Egypt. Over the past five years or so, 1,239 new international routes have opened between China and other B&R countries, accounting for 69.1 percent of the total of China’s new international routes over that period.


——能源设施建设方面。中国与沿线国家签署了一系列合作框架协议和谅解备忘录,在电力、油气、核电、新能源、煤炭等领域开展了广泛合作,与相关国家共同维护油气管网安全运营,促进国家和地区之间的能源资源优化配置。中俄原油管道、中国-中亚天然气管道保持稳定运营,中俄天然气管道东线将于2019年12月部分实现通气,2024年全线通气。中缅油气管道全线贯通。
– Energy facilities
China has signed a large number of cooperation frame- work agreements and MoUs with other B&R countries, and has carried out extensive cooperation in the fields of elec- tricity, oil and gas, nuclear power, new energy, and coal. It works with relevant countries to ensure the safe operation of oil and gas pipeline networks and optimize the configu- ration of energy resources between countries and regions. The China-Russia crude oil pipeline and the China- Central Asia natural gas pipeline have maintained stable operation. Certain sections of the eastern route of the China-Russia natural gas pipeline will enter service in December 2019 and the entire eastern route will be completed and enter service in 2024. China-Myanmar oil and gas pipelines have been completed.


——通讯设施建设方面。中缅、中巴、中吉、中俄跨境光缆信息通道建设取得明显进展。中国与国际电信联盟签署《关于加强“一带一路”框架下电信和信息网络领域合作的意向书》。与吉尔吉斯斯坦、塔吉克斯坦、阿富汗签署丝路光缆合作协议,实质性启动了丝路光缆项目。
– Communication facilities
Significant progress has been made in the construction of China-Myanmar, China-Pakistan, China-Kyrgyzstan, and China-Russia cross-border fiber optic cables for infor- mation transmission. China and the International Telecom- munication Union signed a “Letter of Intent to Strengthen Cooperation on Telecommunications and Information Net- works Within the Framework of the Belt and Road Initia- tive”. China has also signed cooperation agreements with Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Afghanistan on fiber optic ca- bles, which represent the practical launch of the Silk Road Fiber Optic Cable project.


(三)贸易畅通
3. Unimpeded trade


贸易畅通是共建“一带一路”的重要内容。共建“一带一路”促进了沿线国家和地区贸易投资自由化便利化,降低了交易成本和营商成本,释放了发展潜力,进一步提升了各国参与经济全球化的广度和深度。
Unimpeded trade is an important goal of the Belt and Road Initiative. The efforts invested in the initiative have liberalized and facilitated trade and investment in the par- ticipating countries and regions, lowered the costs of trade and business, and released growth potential, enabling the participants to engage in broader and deeper economic glo- balization.


1.贸易与投资自由化便利化水平不断提升。中国发起《推进“一带一路”贸易畅通合作倡议》,83个国家和国际组织积极参与。海关检验检疫合作不断深化,2017年5月首届“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛以来,中国与沿线国家签署100多项合作文件,实现了50多种农产品食品检疫准入。中国和哈萨克斯坦、吉尔吉斯斯坦、塔吉克斯坦农产品快速通关“绿色通道”建设积极推进,农产品通关时间缩短了90%。中国进一步放宽外资准入领域,营造高标准的国际营商环境,设立了面向全球开放的12个自由贸易试验区,并探索建设自由贸易港,吸引沿线国家来华投资。中国平均关税水平从加入世界贸易组织时的15.3%降至目前的7.5%。中国与东盟、新加坡、巴基斯坦、格鲁吉亚等多个国家和地区签署或升级了自由贸易协定,与欧亚经济联盟签署经贸合作协定,与沿线国家的自由贸易区网络体系逐步形成。
1) Greater liberalization and facilitation of trade and investment. China has issued the “Initiative on Promoting Unimpeded Trade Cooperation Along the Belt and Road”, to which 83 countries and international organizations have subscribed. Cooperation in border inspection and quarantine has deepened. Since the first Belt and Road Forum for Inter- national Cooperation in May 2017, China has signed more than 100 cooperation agreements with other B&R countries, granting access to some 50 types of agricultural products and food after inspection and quarantine. Express customs clear- ance services for agricultural products between China and Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan have reduced the clearance time by 90 percent. China has further expanded sectors accepting foreign investment to create a business en- vironment of high international standards. It has opened 12 pilot free trade zones for global business and experimented with free trade ports to attract investment from participat- ing countries of the Belt and Road Initiative. China’s aver- age tariffs have dropped from 15.3 percent when it joined the World Trade Organization to 7.5 percent today. China has signed or upgraded free trade agreements with ASEAN, Singapore, Pakistan, Georgia and other countries and regions, and signed an economic and trade cooperation agreement with the Eurasian Economic Union. A network of free trade areas involving China and other B&R countries has taken shape.


2.贸易规模持续扩大。2013-2018年,中国与沿线国家货物贸易进出口总额超过6万亿美元,年均增长率高于同期中国对外贸易增速,占中国货物贸易总额的比重达到27.4%。其中,2018年,中国与沿线国家货物贸易进出口总额达到1.3万亿美元,同比增长16.4%。中国与沿线国家服务贸易由小到大、稳步发展。2017年,中国与沿线国家服务贸易进出口额达977.6亿美元,同比增长18.4%,占中国服务贸易总额的14.1%,比2016年提高1.6个百分点。世界银行研究组分析了共建“一带一路”倡议对71个潜在参与国的贸易影响,发现共建“一带一路”倡议将使参与国之间的贸易往来增加4.1%。(注1)
2) Expanding trade. From 2013 to 2018 the value of trade between China and other B&R countries surpassed US$6 trillion, accounting for 27.4 percent of China’s total trade in goods and growing faster than the country’s overall foreign trade. In 2018 the value of trade in goods between China and other B&R countries reached US$1.3 trillion, growing by 16.4 percent year on year. Trade in services be- tween China and other B&R countries has seen steady prog- ress, growing by 18.4 percent from 2016 to reach US$97.76 billion in 2017. The figure accounted for 14.1 percent of China’s total trade in services, 1.6 percentage points higher than in 2016. According to a World Bank study that analyzes the impact of the Belt and Road Initiative on trade in 71 po- tentially participating countries, the initiative increases trade flows among participating countries by up to 4.1 percent.


3.贸易方式创新进程加快。跨境电子商务等新业态、新模式正成为推动贸易畅通的重要新生力量。2018年,通过中国海关跨境电子商务管理平台零售进出口商品总额达203亿美元,同比增长50%,其中出口84.8亿美元,同比增长67.0%,进口118.7亿美元,同比增长39.8%。“丝路电商”合作蓬勃兴起,中国与17个国家建立双边电子商务合作机制,在金砖国家等多边机制下形成电子商务合作文件,加快了企业对接和品牌培育的实质性步伐。
3) Faster pace of trade model innovation. New trade models such as cross-border e-commerce are becoming an important driver of trade. In 2018 the total value of retail goods imported and exported through the cross-border e-commerce platform of China Customs reached US$20.3 billion, growing by 50 percent year on year. Exports were US$8.48 billion, growing by 67 percent year on year, and imports were US$11.87 billion, growing by 39.8 percent year on year. As Silk Road e-commerce prospers, China has established cooperation mechanisms for bilateral e-commerce with 17 countries, created agreements on e-commerce cooperation under the BRICS and other mul- tilateral frameworks, and made solid progress in finding overseas partners for Chinese businesses and developing Chinese brands.


(四)资金融通
4. Financial integration


资金融通是共建“一带一路”的重要支撑。国际多边金融机构以及各类商业银行不断探索创新投融资模式,积极拓宽多样化融资渠道,为共建“一带一路”提供稳定、透明、高质量的资金支持。
Financial integration is an important pillar of the Belt and Road Initiative. Exploring investment and financing models, international multilateral financial institutions and commercial banks have played an innovative role in ex- panding the channels of diversified financing, providing stable, transparent and quality financial support for the Belt and Road Initiative.


1.探索新型国际投融资模式。“一带一路”沿线基础设施建设和产能合作潜力巨大,融资缺口亟待弥补。各国主权基金和投资基金发挥越来越重要的作用。近年来,阿联酋阿布扎比投资局、中国投资有限责任公司等主权财富基金对沿线国家主要新兴经济体投资规模显著增加。丝路基金与欧洲投资基金共同投资的中欧共同投资基金于2018年7月开始实质性运作,投资规模5亿欧元,有力促进了共建“一带一路”倡议与欧洲投资计划相对接。
1) Exploring new models of international invest- ment and financing. Boasting huge cooperation potential in infrastructure construction and industrial capacity, the Belt and Road Initiative is in urgent need of finance. The sovereign wealth funds and investment funds of the partici- pating countries are playing a bigger part. In recent years the Abu Dhabi Investment Authority of the UAE, China Investment Corporation and other sovereign wealth funds have markedly increased investment in major emerging economies participating in the initiative. The China-EU Joint Investment Fund, which began operation in July 2018 with an injected capital of EUR500 million from the Silk Road Fund and the European Investment Fund, has helped the Belt and Road Initiative to dovetail with the Investment Plan for Europe.


2.多边金融合作支撑作用显现。中国财政部与阿根廷、俄罗斯、印度尼西亚、英国、新加坡等27国财政部核准了《“一带一路”融资指导原则》。根据这一指导原则,各国支持金融资源服务于相关国家和地区的实体经济发展,重点加大对基础设施互联互通、贸易投资、产能合作等领域的融资支持。中国人民银行与世界银行集团下属的国际金融公司、泛美开发银行、非洲开发银行和欧洲复兴开发银行等多边开发机构开展联合融资,截至2018年底已累计投资100多个项目,覆盖70多个国家和地区。2017年11月,中国-中东欧银联体成立,成员包括中国、匈牙利、捷克、斯洛伐克、克罗地亚等14个国家的金融机构。2018年7月、9月,中国-阿拉伯国家银行联合体、中非金融合作银行联合体成立,建立了中国与阿拉伯国家之间、非洲国家之间的首个多边金融合作机制。
2) Growing support from multilateral financial co- operation. China’s Ministry of Finance and its counterparts in 27 countries including Argentina, Russia, Indonesia, the UK, and Singapore have endorsed the “Guiding Principles on Financing the Development of the Belt and Road”. Ac- cording to the Principles, the countries participating in the Belt and Road Initiative support channeling of financial resources to serve the real economy of countries and regions involved, with priority given to such areas as infrastructure connectivity, trade and investment, and industrial coopera- tion, among others. The People’s Bank of China has rolled out joint financing programs with the International Finance Corporation under the World Bank Group, Inter-American Development Bank, African Development Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and other mul- tilateral development institutions. By the end of 2018 these institutions had invested in more than 100 programs in over 70 countries and regions. Established in November 2017, the China-CEEC Bank Consortium includes 14 financial institutions from China, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Croatia, and nine other Central and Eastern Eu- ropean countries. In July 2018 the China-Arab States Bank Consortium was founded, followed by the China-Africa Fi- nancial Cooperation Consortium established in September; each was the first multilateral financial cooperation mecha- nism between China and the respective area.


3.金融机构合作水平不断提升。在共建“一带一路”中,政策性出口信用保险覆盖面广,在支持基础设施、基础产业的建设上发挥了独特作用;商业银行在多元化吸收存款、公司融资、金融产品、贸易代理、信托等方面具有优势。截至2018年底,中国出口信用保险公司累计支持对沿线国家的出口和投资超过6000亿美元。中国银行、中国工商银行、中国农业银行、中国建设银行等中资银行与沿线国家建立了广泛的代理行关系。德国商业银行与中国工商银行签署合作谅解备忘录,成为首家加入“一带一路”银行合作常态化机制的德国银行。
3) Closer cooperation between financial institutions. In building the Belt and Road, policy-backed export credit insurance, which has wide coverage, plays a special role in supporting infrastructure and basic industries. The strengths of commercial banks lie in taking deposits from wider sources, corporate financing, financial products, trade agen- cy, and trust services. By the end of 2018 the China Export & Credit Insurance Corporation had endorsed US$600 bil- lion on export to and investment in the participating coun- tries. Chinese-financed banks, such as the Bank of China, Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, Agricultural Bank of China, and China Construction Bank, have formed extensive agent banking relations with the participating countries. Commerzbank became the first German bank to join the banking mechanism of the Belt and Road Initiative when it signed an MoU on cooperation with the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China.


4.金融市场体系建设日趋完善。沿线国家不断深化长期稳定、互利共赢的金融合作关系,各类创新金融产品不断推出,大大拓宽了共建“一带一路”的融资渠道。中国不断提高银行间债券市场对外开放程度,截至2018年底,熊猫债发行规模已达2000亿人民币左右。中国进出口银行面向全球投资者发行20亿人民币“债券通”绿色金融债券,金砖国家新开发银行发行首单30亿人民币绿色金融债,支持绿色丝绸之路建设。证券期货交易所之间的股权、业务和技术合作稳步推进。2015年,上海证券交易所、德意志交易所集团、中国金融期货交易所共同出资成立中欧国际交易所。上海证券交易所与哈萨克斯坦阿斯塔纳国际金融中心管理局签署合作协议,将共同投资建设阿斯塔纳国际交易所。
4) Improved financial market system. The initia- tive’s participating countries have made continued efforts to consolidate and improve financial cooperation for long- term benefits and win-win outcomes. With a steady supply of innovative financial products, channels for financing the Belt and Road Initiative have expanded substantially. China has continued to open up its interbank bond market. By the end of 2018 about RMB200 billion of Panda bonds had been issued. The Export-Import Bank of China issued a RMB2 billion green bond for global investors, and the BRICS New Development Bank issued a RMB3 billion green bond to support the green development of the Belt and Road Initiative. Stock equity, business and technical cooperation between securities and futures exchanges has advanced. The Shanghai Stock Exchange, Deutsche Börse Group, and China Financial Futures Exchange jointly founded the China Europe International Exchange in 2015, and the Shanghai Stock Exchange and Astana International Financial Center Authority of Kazakhstan have signed an agreement to co-invest in building the Astana International Exchange.


5.金融互联互通不断深化。已有11家中资银行在28个沿线国家设立76家一级机构,来自22个沿线国家的50家银行在中国设立7家法人银行、19家外国银行分行和34家代表处。2家中资证券公司在新加坡、老挝设立合资公司。中国先后与20多个沿线国家建立了双边本币互换安排,与7个沿线国家建立了人民币清算安排,与35个沿线国家的金融监管当局签署了合作文件。人民币国际支付、投资、交易、储备功能稳步提高,人民币跨境支付系统(CIPS)业务范围已覆盖近40个沿线国家和地区。中国-国际货币基金组织联合能力建设中心、“一带一路”财经发展研究中心挂牌成立。
5) Deeper financial connectivity. Eleven Chinese-funded banks have set up 76 first-grade institutions in 28 B&R coun- tries, and 50 banks from 22 B&R countries have opened 7 corporate banks, 19 branches, and 34 representative offices in China. Two Chinese-funded securities firms have estab- lished joint ventures in Singapore and Laos. China has made bilateral currency swap arrangements with more than 20 B&R countries and Renminbi clearing arrangements with 7 B&R countries, and signed cooperation agreements with the fi- nancial supervision authorities of 35 B&R countries. The Reminbi’s functions as a currency for international payment, investment, trade, and reserve have been strengthened. The Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) now covers some 40 countries and regions involved in the Belt and Road Initiative. The China-IMF Capacity Development Center and the Research Center for the Belt and Road Financial and Economic Development have been founded.


(五)民心相通
5.Closer people-to-people ties


民心相通是共建“一带一路”的人文基础。享受和平、安宁、富足,过上更加美好生活,是各国人民的共同梦想。5年多来,各国开展了形式多样、领域广泛的公共外交和文化交流,增进了相互理解和认同,为共建“一带一路”奠定了坚实的民意基础。
People-to-people ties are the cultural foundation for building the Belt and Road. It is the common dream of all peoples to enjoy a peaceful and prosperous life. Over the past five years or so, the B&R countries have carried out diplomat- ic activities and cultural exchanges of various forms in wide fields, enhancing mutual understanding and recognition and laying a solid cultural foundation for furthering the initiative.


1.文化交流形式多样。中国与沿线国家互办艺术节、电影节、音乐节、文物展、图书展等活动,合作开展图书广播影视精品创作和互译互播。丝绸之路国际剧院、博物馆、艺术节、图书馆、美术馆联盟相继成立。中国与中东欧、东盟、俄罗斯、尼泊尔、希腊、埃及、南非等国家和地区共同举办文化年活动,形成了“丝路之旅”、“中非文化聚焦”等10余个文化交流品牌,打造了丝绸之路(敦煌)国际文化博览会、丝绸之路国际艺术节、海上丝绸之路国际艺术节等一批大型文化节会,在沿线国家设立了17个中国文化中心。中国与印度尼西亚、缅甸、塞尔维亚、新加坡、沙特阿拉伯等国签订了文化遗产合作文件。中国、哈萨克斯坦、吉尔吉斯斯坦“丝绸之路:长安-天山廊道的路网”联合申遗成功。“一带一路”新闻合作联盟建设积极推进。丝绸之路沿线民间组织合作网络成员已达310家,成为推动民间友好合作的重要平台。
1) Diverse forms of cultural exchange. China and other B&R countries have hosted events such as arts fes- tivals, film festivals, music festivals, cultural relics ex- hibitions, and book fairs, and have jointly launched new publishing, radio, film and television programs, as well as translating and introducing each other’s media programs. The Silk Road International League of Theaters, Silk Road International Museum Alliance, Network of Silk Road Arts Festivals, Silk Road International Library Alliance, and Silk Road International Alliance of Art Museums and Gal- leries have been established. China, CEE countries, ASEAN countries, Russia, Nepal, Greece, Egypt, and South Africa have hosted activities to celebrate the cultures of B&R countries in different years, and developed about a dozen cultural exchange brands such as the “Silk Road Tour” and “Chinese/African Cultures in Focus”. Major cultural festi- vals and expos have been launched such as the Silk Road (Dunhuang) International Cultural Expo, Silk Road Interna- tional Arts Festival, and Maritime Silk Road International Arts Festival, and 17 Chinese culture centers have been set up in B&R countries. China has signed cooperation agree- ments on the protection of cultural heritage with Indonesia, Myanmar, Serbia, Singapore, and Saudi Arabia. Through a combined effort from China, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, Silk Roads: The Routes Network of Chang’an-Tian Shan Corridor has become a UNESCO World Heritage site. Steady progress has been made in the Belt and Road News Alliance. The Silk Road NGO Cooperation Network, with 310 members, has become an important platform for non- governmental cooperation.


2.教育培训成果丰富。中国设立“丝绸之路”中国政府奖学金项目,与24个沿线国家签署高等教育学历学位互认协议。2017年沿线国家3.87万人接受中国政府奖学金来华留学,占奖学金生总数的66.0%。香港、澳门特别行政区分别设立共建“一带一路”相关奖学金。在54个沿线国家设有孔子学院153个、孔子课堂149个。中国科学院在沿线国家设立硕士、博士生奖学金和科技培训班,已培训5000人次。
2) Fruitful results in education and training. The Chi- nese Government Scholarship – Silk Road Program has been set up, and China has signed agreements with 24 B&R countries on the mutual recognition of higher education de- grees. In 2017, 38,700 students from other B&R countries studied in China on scholarships provided by the Chinese government, accounting for 66 percent of all students receiv- ing such scholarships. Other B&R scholarships are provided in the Hong Kong and Macao SARs. China has opened 153 Confucius Institutes and 149 Confucius Classrooms in 54 B&R countries. The Chinese Academy of Sciences offers scholarships in Master’s and Doctorate programs to other B&R countries, and runs science and technology training courses which have trained some 5,000 students from other B&R countries.


3.旅游合作逐步扩大。中国与多个国家共同举办旅游年,创办丝绸之路旅游市场推广联盟、海上丝绸之路旅游推广联盟、“万里茶道”国际旅游联盟等旅游合作机制。与57个沿线国家缔结了涵盖不同护照种类的互免签证协定,与15个国家达成19份简化签证手续的协定或安排。2018年中国出境旅游人数达1.5亿人次,到中国旅游的外国游客人数达3054万人次,俄罗斯、缅甸、越南、蒙古、马来西亚、菲律宾、新加坡等国成为中国主要客源市场。
3) Expanding cooperation in tourism. China has held joint year of tourism with many other B&R countries, initiating cooperation mechanisms such as the Silk Road Tourism Promotion Union, Maritime Silk Road Tourism Promotion Alliance, and Tea Road International Tourism Alliance. China has signed mutual visa exemption agree- ments for different types of passport with 57 B&R countries, and concluded 19 agreements or arrangements to stream- line visa application procedures with 15 countries. In 2018 outbound Chinese tourists numbered 150 million, and inbound foreign tourists numbered 30.54 million. Russia, Myanmar, Viet Nam, Mongolia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Singapore were the main sources of tourists for China.


4.卫生健康合作不断深化。自首届“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛召开以来,中国与蒙古、阿富汗等国,世界卫生组织等国际组织,比尔及梅琳达·盖茨基金会等非政府组织相继签署了56个推动卫生健康合作的协议。2017年8月,“一带一路”暨健康丝绸之路高级别研讨会在北京召开,发布了《北京公报》。中国与澜沧江-湄公河国家开展艾滋病、疟疾、登革热、流感、结核病等防控合作,与中亚国家开展包虫病、鼠疫等人畜共患病防控合作,与西亚国家开展脊髓灰质炎等防控合作。中国先后派出多支眼科医疗队赴柬埔寨、缅甸、老挝、斯里兰卡等国开展“光明行”活动,派遣短期医疗队赴斐济、汤加、密克罗尼西亚、瓦努阿图等太平洋岛国开展“送医上岛”活动。在35个沿线国家建立了中医药海外中心,建设了43个中医药国际合作基地。
4) Deeper cooperation in health and medicine. Since the first Belt and Road Forum for International Coopera- tion, China has signed 56 agreements on cooperation in the health sector with countries such as Mongolia and Afghani- stan, international organizations such as the World Health Organization, and NGOs such as the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. In August 2017 the Belt and Road High-Level Meeting for Health Cooperation: Towards a Health Silk Road was held in Beijing, which issued the “Beijing Com- muniqué of the Belt and Road Health Cooperation”. China has carried out cooperation on the prevention and control of AIDS, malaria, dengue, flu, and tuberculosis with Lancang- Mekong countries; on the prevention and control of echi- nococcosis, plague and other zoonoses with Central Asian countries; and on the prevention and control of polio with Western Asian countries. China has dispatched ophthalmol- ogy teams to Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos, and Sri Lanka to carry out the “Brightness Action” program, and short- term medical teams to island countries such as Fiji, Tonga, Micronesia, and Vanuatu in the Pacific. It has established traditional Chinese medicine centers in 35 B&R countries, and 43 international TCM cooperation bases.


5.救灾、援助与扶贫持续推进。首届“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛以来,中国向沿线发展中国家提供20亿人民币紧急粮食援助,向南南合作援助基金增资10亿美元,在沿线国家实施了100个“幸福家园”、100个“爱心助困”、100个“康复助医”等项目。开展援外文物合作保护和涉外联合考古,与6国开展了8个援外文物合作项目,与12国开展了15个联合考古项目。中国向老挝等国提供地震监测仪器设备,提高防震减灾能力。中国在柬埔寨、尼泊尔开展社会组织合作项目24个,助力改善当地民众生活。
5) Ongoing effort in disaster relief, assistance, and poverty alleviation. Since the first Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation, China has provided RMB2 billion in emergency food assistance to developing countries participating in the initiative, injected an additional US$1 bil- lion to the South-South Cooperation Assistance Fund, and implemented 100 Happy Home Projects, 100 Anti-Poverty Projects, and 100 Health Recovery Projects. China has partic- ipated in 8 joint programs for the protection of cultural relics with 6 countries, and 15 joint archeological activities with 12 countries. China has provided Laos and other countries with seismic monitoring equipment to improve their early warning and disaster alleviation capacity. China has initiated 24 cooperation programs with civil society organizations in Cambodia and Nepal, in an effort to improve the lives of local people.


(六)产业合作
6. Industrial cooperation


共建“一带一路”支持开展多元化投资,鼓励进行第三方市场合作,推动形成普惠发展、共享发展的产业链、供应链、服务链、价值链,为沿线国家加快发展提供新的动能。
The Belt and Road Initiative draws investment from diverse sources, encourages third-party market coopera- tion, and aims to build industry, supply, service, and value chains that benefit all and are shared by all, so as to provide new growth drivers for faster development in the partici- pating countries.


1.中国对沿线国家的直接投资平稳增长。2013-2018年,中国企业对沿线国家直接投资超过900亿美元,在沿线国家完成对外承包工程营业额超过4000亿美元。2018年,中国企业对沿线国家实现非金融类直接投资156亿美元,同比增长8.9%,占同期总额的13.0%;沿线国家对外承包工程完成营业额893亿美元,占同期总额的53.0%。世界银行研究表明,预计沿线国家的外商直接投资总额将增加4.97%,其中,来自沿线国家内部的外商直接投资增加4.36%,来自经济合作与发展组织国家的外商直接投资增加4.63%,来自非沿线国家的外商直接投资增加5.75%。(注2)
1) Stable growth in China’s direct investment in B&R countries. From 2013 to 2018 China’s direct investment in B&R countries surpassed US$90 billion, realizing a turnover of US$400 billion in foreign contracted projects in these coun- tries. In 2018 Chinese businesses made a total of US$15.6 billion in non-financial direct investment in B&R countries, growing by 8.9 percent year on year and accounting for 13 percent of China’s total non-financial FDI during the same period. The turnover of foreign contracted projects in B&R countries reached US$89.3 billion, or 53 percent of the total turnover of foreign contracted projects in the same period. Ac- cording to a World Bank study, the transportation network pro- posed by the Belt and Road Initiative can lead to a 4.97-percent increase in total FDI flows to B&R countries, a 4.36-percent increase in FDI flows within B&R countries, a 4.63-percent increase in FDI flows from OECD countries, and a 5.75-percent increase in FDI flows from non-B&R countries.


2.国际产能合作和第三方市场合作稳步推进。沿线国家加快发展产生了国际产能合作的巨大市场需求,中国积极响应并与相关国家推进市场化、全方位的产能合作,促进沿线国家实现产业结构升级、产业发展层次提升。目前中国已同哈萨克斯坦、埃及、埃塞俄比亚、巴西等40多个国家签署了产能合作文件,同东盟、非盟、拉美和加勒比国家共同体等区域组织进行合作对接,开展机制化产能合作。中国与法国、意大利、西班牙、日本、葡萄牙等国签署了第三方市场合作文件。
2) Steady progress in international cooperation on industrial development and third-party markets. As faster growth in B&R countries has generated huge mar- ket demands on international industrial cooperation, China has taken active measures to boost market-oriented indus- trial cooperation with relevant countries in all areas, so as to upgrade the industrial structure and raise the level of industries in these countries. Currently China has signed agreements on industrial cooperation with more than 40 countries including Kazakhstan, Egypt, Ethiopia, and Brazil. It has dovetailed industrial cooperation programs with regional organizations such as the ASEAN, African Union, and CELAC. China has signed third-party market cooperation agreements with France, Italy, Spain, Japan, and Portugal.


3.合作园区蓬勃发展。中国各类企业遵循市场化法治化原则自主赴沿线国家共建合作园区,推动这些国家借鉴中国改革开放以来通过各类开发区、工业园区实现经济增长的经验和做法,促进当地经济发展,为沿线国家创造了新的税收源和就业渠道。同时,中国还分别与哈萨克斯坦、老挝建立了中哈霍尔果斯国际边境合作中心、中老磨憨-磨丁经济合作区等跨境经济合作区,与其他国家合作共建跨境经济合作区的工作也在稳步推进。
3) Vigorous development in cooperation parks and zones. Applying market principles and complying with laws, Chinese businesses of all types have joined in the development of cooperation parks and zones in other B&R countries, sharing China’s best practices and the experience it has gained in development zones and indus- trial parks during reform and opening up. In addition to promoting the local economy, these have also created new sources of tax revenue and jobs in the countries involved. China has established the China-Kazakhstan Khorgos In- ternational Border Cooperation Center, and the China-Laos Mohan-Boten Cross-Border Economic Cooperation Zone; more cross-border economic cooperation zones with other countries are being planned or built.

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