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李克强总理记者会文字实录(双语全文)

新华网 2020-06-01 15:07

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中国日报记者:今年您在政府工作报告中调低了城镇新增就业目标,调高了城镇调查失业率。面对严峻的就业形势,政府将如何遏制失业潮?如何帮助大学生和农民工找到工作?

China Daily: In this year’s Government Work Report, the target of new urban jobs has been revised downward, and the target of surveyed urban unemployment rate upward, compared with the levels last year. In the face of the severe employment situation, what will the government do to avert massive job losses and help college graduates and rural migrant workers find jobs?

 

李克强:今年我们确定城镇新增就业900万人以上,的确比去年低,实现这个目标要有一定的经济增长作支撑。我们把城镇调查失业率定为6%左右,今年4月份城镇调查失业率已经是6%了,我们这样做也是实事求是。

Premier Li: We have set this year’s target of new urban jobs at over 9 million, somewhat below last year’s level. To attain this goal, we need to maintain a certain level of economic growth. The urban surveyed unemployment rate target is set at around 6 percent. In fact, in April, that figure already hit 6 percent, so such a target was set on the basis of the situation on the ground.

 

就业是最大的民生,对于一个家庭来说是天大的事情。这几天我看中国政府网上的留言,大概三分之一都是谈就业的。其中有一位农民工说他50多岁了,在外打工30多年,每年如此,但今年还没有找到工作,全家都陷入困境。还有一些个体工商户,已经歇业几个月了。一些外贸企业现在没有订单,影响员工就业。对他们的困难,我们要给予救助,但是从根本上说,还是要帮助他们就业。中国有9亿劳动力,没有就业,就只是9亿张吃饭的口;有了就业,就是9亿双可以创造巨大财富的手。

Employment matters the most in people’s lives. It is something of paramount importance for all families. Of all the comments posted by netizens on the Chinese government portal website, some one third are about jobs. One of them was posted by a rural migrant worker in his 50s. He said that over the past 30 plus years, he had been working in cities every year. But so far this year he has been unable to find a job and the whole family is now in difficulty. Many self-employed individuals have seen their businesses grinding to a halt for several months. And some export companies have also been in great difficulty for lack of orders. This is affecting the jobs of their employees. We must provide support to all these people. But most importantly, we must help them land jobs. There is a labor force of 900 million in China. If they are out of work, there will be 900 million mouths to feed; if they are all put to work, 900 million pairs of hands will be able to generate tremendous wealth.

 

为了稳住现有就业岗位,可以说政策是能用尽用,投入的钱也是最多的。我们规模性政策的资金,允许基层用于减税降费,而且允许用于为企业减房租、贴利息。采取这样的措施就是要把企业稳下来,岗位保得住,而且要公平合理。我们还要采取资助企业以训稳岗的政策,今明两年将有3500万人次通过失业保险结存资金来进行岗位培训,给他们缓冲的机会。即便失业了,也要努力让他们短时期内有再就业的机会。

In order to retain existing jobs, all our pro-job measures will be fully employed with the largest input of funds. Such sizable policy funds can be used by primary-level governments to implement tax and fee cuts, and subsidize rents or interest payment in support of companies. So all these measures are designed to keep companies in business and secure the jobs of their employees and they will be implemented in a fair and reasonable way. We will also finance skills training initiatives by businesses to stabilize employment. This year and the next, we will tap into the balance of the unemployment insurance fund to provide some 35 million vocational skills training opportunities. This will cushion the impact of unemployment, and we will help people who lose their jobs get reemployed as soon as possible.

 

同时还要创造更多新的就业岗位。现在新业态蓬勃发展,大概有1亿人就业。我们的零工经济也有2亿人就业。不仅要采取更多扶持政策,而且要打破那些不合理的条条框框,让更多新就业岗位成长起来。去年我们平均每天净增企业超过1万户,今年也要按这个目标去努力。

We also need to do our best to create new jobs. Nowadays, some 100 million people are employed in new forms of business and industry, and some 200 million people are working in the gig economy. The government must continue to provide support and at the same time lift all unwarranted restrictions that prevent the development of those industries and sectors. We also need to create a favorable environment for the increase of new job opportunities. Last year, more than 10,000 new businesses were created on an average day, and we will continue to work hard to see that the figure stays at this level this year.

 

人民群众有无穷创造力。回想改革开放之初,大批知青返城,就一个“大碗茶”解决了多少人的就业!两周前,我看到报道,西部有个城市,按照当地的规范,设置了3.6万个流动商贩的摊位,结果一夜之间有10万人就业。中国人民是勤劳的,中国的市场也在不断开拓和升级。当然,对重点人群就业,我们有重点扶持政策。今年大学毕业生创新高,达到874万人,要让他们成为“不断线的风筝”,今明两年都要持续提供就业服务。对农民工,不论是在常住地还是返乡,都要给他们提供就业服务平台。对退役军人,要切实把安置政策落实好。

We can certainly rely on the innovation and initiative of the Chinese people in this respect. One may recall when young people returned to the cities from the countryside in large numbers in the early days of reform and opening-up, the opening of roadside tea stands helped to put many of them to work. About two weeks ago, I saw in the news that a city in China’s western region, in keeping with local rules and regulations, set up 36,000 mobile stalls, adding some 100,000 new jobs overnight.

Our people are hardworking, and the Chinese market keeps expanding and upgrading. In this process, the government must focus on providing support to key groups in their employment. The number of new college graduates will reach a record high of 8.74 million this year. We must provide employment services to these people, both this year and next, so that they will not be left to their own devices. And for rural migrant workers, no matter whether they are still working in a city or have returned to their hometown, we will put in place employment service platforms to support them in landing jobs. We must also fully implement all the support measures for demobilized military personnel as well.

 

凤凰卫视记者:这次全国人大会议作出了关于建立健全香港特别行政区维护国家安全的法律制度和执行机制的决定,全国人大常委会将就此制定专门的法律。这是否表明中央调整了对香港的政策,是否放弃了“一国两制”?对于当下各方的反应您如何看待?

Phoenix TV: At this year’s NPC Session, a decision was adopted on establishing and improving the legal system and enforcement mechanisms for safeguarding national security in the Hong Kong SAR. The Standing Committee of the NPC will also set in motion a legislative process in this respect. Does this mean that the Central Government has adjusted its policy toward Hong Kong and abandoned “one country, two systems”? How do you respond to the various comments in this respect?

 

李克强:“一国两制”是国家的基本国策,中央政府始终强调要全面准确贯彻“一国两制”、“港人治港”、高度自治方针,严格按照宪法和基本法办事,支持特区政府和行政长官依法施政,这是一贯的。你提到全国人大刚通过的有关维护国家安全的决定,是为了确保“一国两制”行稳致远,维护香港长期繁荣稳定。

Premier Li: “One country, two systems” is China’s basic state policy. The Central Government has all along fully and faithfully implemented the “one country, two systems” under which the people of Hong Kong administer Hong Kong with a high degree of autonomy, acted in strict accordance with the Constitution and the Basic Law, and supported the Hong Kong SAR government and the Chief Executive in exercising administration according to law. The decision adopted at the NPC Session to safeguard national security is designed for the steady implementation of “one country, two systems” and for Hong Kong’s long-term prosperity and stability.

 

美国全国广播公司记者:美国继续将新冠肺炎疫情全球大流行归咎中国,出现了更多关于中美之间“新冷战”的说法。与此同时,美中双方官员还在讨论如何为落实两国之间第一阶段经贸协议创造有利条件,推动中美关系稳定发展。考虑到中国自身经济遇到的困难,您是否认为中国的经济改革和让步足以解决美方关切呢?如果合作努力失败,中国经济能否抵御“新冷战”和“脱钩”的威胁?

NBC News: The United States continues to blame China for the global pandemic. There’s more and more talk of a cold war between the US and China. At the same time, Chinese and American officials talk of creating favorable conditions for the phase one trade deal that could help stabilize the relationship. Are you still confident that more economic reforms and concessions of China can adequately address America’s concerns, given that China’s economy has been weakened? Or if the efforts for cooperation fail, can China’s economy withstand the threat of a “cold war” and “decoupling”?

 

李克强:当前中美关系的确出现一些新问题、新挑战。中美关系很重要,两国都是联合国安理会常任理事国,在应对传统和非传统挑战方面都有很多可以、而且应当合作的地方,在经贸、科技、人文方面也有广泛的交流,两国之间存在着广泛的共同利益。中美两国合则两利、斗则俱伤,不仅关系两国人民的利益,而且关系到世界,所以一些问题发生后引起世界的担忧。至于你说到“新冷战”,我们从来都主张摒弃“冷战”思维。所谓“脱钩”,可以说两个主要经济体“脱钩”,对谁都没有好处,也会伤害世界。我们应该按照两国元首达成的重要共识,推动建立以协调、合作、稳定为基调的中美关系。

Premier Li: It is true that at the moment, China-US relations have encountered some new problems and challenges. This is a very important bilateral relationship. Both countries are permanent members of the UN Security Council. There are many areas where the two countries can and should work with each other in tackling both traditional and non-traditional challenges. There are also extensive exchanges between the two countries in the economic, trade, scientific, technological, cultural and other fields. So it is fair to say that there is extensive common interest between China and the United States. Both countries stand to gain from cooperation and lose from confrontation. Getting Sino-US relationship right is in the interest of people of both countries and the whole world. Given the importance of this relationship, the problems that occurred in this relationship have been a cause for concern for the international community. As for a cold war, you know that we have all along rejected the “cold war” mentality. And “decoupling” between major economies will do neither side any good. It is also harmful to the world. I believe we should continue to work together to follow through on the important consensus reached between our two presidents and work jointly to foster a Sino-US relationship based on coordination, cooperation and stability.

 

中美两国经济你中有我、我中有你,一路走来很不容易,双方都从中获益。这使我想起,就在几天前,一家美国高科技公司宣布在中国武汉的投资项目开工。我不是做商业广告,但是我对他们的行为是赞赏的,所以发了贺信。这个例子表明,中美商贸界是互有需要的,是可以实现合作共赢的。

The economies of our two countries have become closely interconnected. Our economic and trade ties have come a long way, and both sides have benefited tremendously. Just a few days ago, an American high-tech firm announced the launch of an investment project in Wuhan. I shouldn’t do any commercial promotion for any company, but I highly appreciate this move and sent my message of congratulations to mark the occasion. I believe this example shows that the business communities of our two countries need each other, and our business cooperation can be of mutual benefit.

 

中美之间的商贸合作应该遵循商业规则,由市场来选择,由企业家判断、拍板,政府起搭平台的作用。中美两国,一个是世界上最大的发展中国家,一个是世界上最大的发达国家,有不同的社会制度、文化传统、历史背景,存在矛盾、分歧不可避免,问题在于怎样对待。中美关系几十年来风风雨雨,一方面合作前行,一方面磕磕绊绊,的确很复杂,这需要用智慧去扩大共同利益,管控分歧和矛盾。总之,要相互尊重,平等互利,尊重对方的核心利益和重大关切,寻求合作共赢。这于己、于人、于世界都有利。

I believe the economic cooperation and trade between our two countries should follow commercial principles. We should leave the decisions to the market and to the business leaders. The job of the government is to establish platforms for the business communities of the two countries. China and the United States are the world’s largest developing and developed countries respectively. Given the differences in our social systems, cultural heritage and historical backgrounds, some disagreements and even frictions may be unavoidable. What’s important is how we manage them. The relationship has been moving forward amid twists and turns in the past several decades, featuring both growing cooperation and some bumps along the way. Indeed, this is a complex relationship. We must use our wisdom to expand common interests and manage differences and disagreements. In a word, I believe that the two countries should develop a relationship on the basis of mutual respect, equality and mutual benefit, respect each other’s core interests and major concerns, and embrace cooperation. That will be conducive to the interests of both countries and the world.

 

新华社记者:讲到今年的经济工作,我们听到频率最高的词就是“稳”和“保”。请问总理,这和市场化改革之间是什么关系?政府在这方面的重点是什么?

Xinhua News Agency: When we talk about the economic work agenda for the Chinese government this year, the words we have heard most frequently are stability and protections. What are their relations with market-oriented reforms? What will be the priorities of reform this year?

 

李克强:中国改革开放40多年的经验表明,越是困难越要坚持改革。我们宏观政策提出的“稳”和“保”,是通过市场主体去支撑的,而且是奔着市场主体的困难和关切去做的,这本身就是市场化改革的做法。

Premier Li: Our experience in the past 40-plus years of reform and opening-up shows that the greater difficulty we face, the more important it is for us to keep to reform. In our macro policies, we outlined sets of priority areas where stability is key and where protections are needed. Our measures are designed to help those vast numbers of market entities and are built around addressing their difficulties and concerns. This in itself is consistent with our market-oriented reform.

 

我们首先是要让市场主体活下来。政策的真金白银主要是为市场主体纾困,激发市场活力。真金白银要确保落到企业和个体工商户身上。这次政府工作报告说,要留得青山,赢得未来。我们现在有1.2亿市场主体,他们就是青山,留住他们,就会赢得未来。

First and foremost, we must help all our businesses survive. Our solid measures must serve to provide vital relief to businesses and revitalize the market. Hence, all these measures must deliver real gains to companies and support self-employed individuals. As I said in the Government Work Report, we must do our utmost to help the 120 million market entities in China sustain themselves, and that will help us assure success for the future.

 

不仅要让市场主体活下去,更重要的是通过“放管服”改革把他们激活起来。要打造市场化、法治化、国际化的营商环境,打掉那些不合理的条条框框,让他们公平竞争。这种措施看似无形,但能创造出有形的财富,干好了,不亚于真金白银的投入。

At the same time, we must work hard to help our businesses thrive by pressing ahead with reform of government functions. We will continue to foster a market-oriented and world-class business environment governed by a sound legal framework. The government must lift all unnecessary restrictions on market entities to facilitate fair competition. Such policies and measures, intangible as they are, will create tangible wealth in our businesses just like real investments.

 

再有,就是要让新的市场主体更多地长出来。大家都知道,这次应对疫情中,像网购、快递、云办公等等一些新业态是逆势增长,有的营业收入增长了三分之二,而且现在新业态还层出不穷。这和我们这些年来深化供给侧结构性改革,推动高质量发展,培育壮大新动能,开展大众创业、万众创新都有关。我们应该把这些经验推广开,促使新动能、新的市场主体更多地成长。今年我们要努力做到平均每日新注册企业2万户左右,这是观察中国经济活力的一个重要指标。

Furthermore, we must work hard to help more new market entities emerge. We have seen a trend-bucking surge of growth in new forms of business and industry during the COVID-19 response, including online shopping, express delivery services, and teleworking. Some new forms of business have even seen their revenues increase by two thirds. I believe such developments are very much attributable to our initiatives and reforms in recent years, including the supply-side structural reform, our efforts to promote high-quality development and foster new drivers of growth, and our initiative of encouraging business start-ups and innovation. We must use the experience gained in this process to the fullest extent to foster more growth drivers and help more market entities grow. This year, our goal is to see that the number of newly registered businesses stay at about 20,000 on an average day. And that figure has become an important indicator gauging the economic vitality of China.

 

我们重视中小微企业,并不是不重视大企业,还是希望大中小企业共生共荣,而且期待一些中小微企业将来会成长为大企业,形成一个相互融通发展的局面。今年我们不仅要看纾困政策用得怎么样,还要看营商环境的改善是否明显,这样可以产生乘数效应。

We pay close attention to these smaller firms, but we also highly value the role of big companies. We hope that companies of all sizes will be able to thrive together through close cooperation and collaboration. We also expect that more smaller firms will one day grow into large companies. This year, we must ensure full delivery of all these relief and support measures, and at the same time work for notable improvement in China’s business environment. These measures, when combined, will produce multiplying effects.

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