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新华网 2021-08-12 15:14



衣食无忧好日子 健康富足喜盈门——从“人民生活更加殷实”看全面建成小康社会。这是2020年7月15日拍摄的江西省井冈山市神山村村民笑脸合集(拼版照片)。




Moderate Prosperity in All Respects: Another Milestone Achieved in China’s Human Rights

The State Council Information Office of
the People’s Republic of China
August 2021




I. Achieving Moderate Prosperity and Advancing Human Rights

II. Ending Extreme Poverty and Securing the Right to an Adequate Standard of Living

III. Boosting Human Rights with Development and Securing Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

IV. Protecting Civil and Political Rights with Law and Governance

V. Promoting Social Equity and Protecting the Rights of Special Groups




Human rights are an achievement of humanity and a symbol of progress. Respect for and protection of human rights is a basic principle of modern civilization, and the unwavering goal of the Chinese Communists. The Communist Party of China (CPC) seeks happiness for the people. Its 100-year history records its efforts in fighting for, respecting, protecting, and developing human rights. Owing to its efforts, human rights in China have greatly improved, adding diversity to human civilization.

Building China into a moderately prosperous society in all respects is a major strategy designed by the Party and the government to improve the wellbeing of the people, better protect human rights, and achieve modernization of the country. On July 1, 2021, Xi Jinping, general secretary of the CPC Central Committee and president of China, solemnly declared in Beijing on behalf of the Party and the people that we had realized the first centenary goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. This means we have brought about a historic resolution to the problem of extreme poverty in China, and we are now marching with confidence towards the goal of building China into a great modern socialist country in all respects. It is an exciting moment for human rights in China, a moment that will go down in history, and a moment from which we will forge ahead into the future.

The realization of all-round moderate prosperity shows that the CPC has stayed true to its original aspiration and founding mission. Under the CPC leadership, the Chinese people worked hard in the final stage towards this goal, and finally completed the historic transformation from poverty to secure access to food and clothing, to a decent life, and finally to moderate prosperity.

Moderate prosperity in China is evident in all respects: a buoyant economy, political democracy, a flourishing culture, social equity, and healthy ecosystems; balanced development between urban and rural areas to the benefit of all the people; and high respect for and comprehensive protection of human rights. China’s realization of moderate prosperity serves as a solid foundation for human rights, and takes a deeper and broader perspective on this cause. It represents comprehensive progress in ensuring universal human rights in China, and a new contribution to the world’s human rights cause.


I. Achieving Moderate Prosperity and Advancing Human Rights

Xiaokang, an ancient term in China, refers to a status of moderate prosperity whereby people are neither rich nor poor but free from want and toil. It has been the people’s wish since ancient times to live a life of peace, stability and happiness. In the early period of reform and opening up, based on its own national conditions, China articulated the goal of building a moderately prosperous society, which demonstrated its concern for improving the people’s wellbeing, and its commitment to protecting and promoting human rights. The realization of all-round moderate prosperity ushers in a new era for the protection of human rights in all respects.


1. The Journey to Moderate Prosperity

Building a moderately prosperous society has been a grand strategy since the 1980s, designed to realize national prosperity and rejuvenation, and ensure the people’s wellbeing in China under the leadership of the CPC. Based on its analysis and judgment of China’s realities at that time, the CPC decided to focus on economic development to drive social progress on all fronts. Since then, the CPC and the Chinese government have made it a key goal to build a moderately prosperous society by stages.

In December 1979, Deng Xiaoping presented the vision of building a xiaokang society. The reference to xiaokang grounded the goal of China’s modernization firmly in traditional Chinese culture. The report to the 12th CPC National Congress in 1982 defined the goal to quadruple the annual gross output value of industry and agriculture and secure the people’s basic needs in two decades from 1981 to the end of the 20th century. The report to the 14th CPC National Congress in 1992 stated that the country had ensured the basic needs of 1.1 billion Chinese people and was moving on towards xiaokang.

The report to the 16th CPC National Congress in 2002 declared that on the whole the people had made a historic leap from having only adequate food and clothing to leading a life of moderate prosperity, and set forth the goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects: In the first two decades of the 21st century, China would build a society of moderate prosperity of a higher standard in an all-round way to the benefit of over one billion people; China would further develop the economy, improve democracy, advance science and education, promote cultural prosperity, foster social harmony, and upgrade the quality of life for the people.

The report to the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012 laid out the goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects by 2020. According to this report, China’s economy would maintain sustained and sound development, people’s democracy would be expanded, and human rights would be fully respected and protected. The country’s cultural soft power would be improved significantly. Living standards would be raised. Major progress would be made in building a resource-conserving and environmentally friendly society. The report to the 19th CPC National Congress in 2017 pointed out that to succeed in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, China must strive against all difficulties to promote coordinated progress in the economic, political, cultural, social and eco-environmental fields in light of the current principal challenge facing the country, so that the moderately prosperous society it builds earns the people’s approval and stands the test of time.

On July 1, 2021, Xi Jinping, general secretary of the CPC Central Committee and president of China, declared on behalf of the Party and the people that China had realized the goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects.

This is a critical step towards the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation, fulfilling the historic commitment of the CPC and the Chinese government to the people.


2. Steps Taken to Protect Human Rights

The route to all-round moderate prosperity coincides with comprehensive progress in human rights in China, which involves all the steps necessary to liberate, protect and develop the individual.

Prioritizing the right to subsistence. The right to subsistence comes first among all human rights. A moderately prosperous society takes it as the primary goal to secure adequate food and clothing and protect the right to subsistence, and takes further steps to meet the growing material and cultural needs of the people. Visible progress in securing basic needs and remarkable improvements in living standards are the natural results of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects.

Realizing the coordinated development of all human rights. A moderately prosperous society emphasizes economic, political, cultural, social, and eco-environmental progress to benefit the people. It upholds the basic principle of interdependence and indivisibility of human rights. To advance all human rights and fundamental freedoms in all respects, it protects economic, social, and cultural rights, political and democratic rights, personal rights, personality rights, and property rights.

Advancing the rights of all people. All-round moderate prosperity means all the people enjoy human rights. In the process of creating this society, China has built a system guaranteeing social equity with equal opportunities, equal rules and equal rights, in which all can participate in, contribute to, and enjoy development.
The CPC and the Chinese government uphold the universality of human rights and ensure that no one is left behind on the way towards prosperity. Holding fast to the principle of common prosperity, they allowed some people to create wealth as a first step to bringing prosperity for all. They have ensured just distribution in order that the fruits of development benefit all people equally. They adhere to the principles of equality before the law and non-discrimination, making sure all citizens are entitled to equal rights and respect without discrimination of any kind, such as ethnicity, race, gender, occupation, birth, religion, education, property, or length of residence. Committed to protecting the basic rights of vulnerable groups, particularly poor people in impoverished areas, they have eliminated extreme poverty by applying strong determination, clear thinking, effective measures, and all resources available.


3. Reinforced Groundwork for Human Rights

Human rights are the foundation of good governance. China has always been committed to respecting, protecting and advancing human rights, and increasing the people’s sense of fulfillment, happiness and security. The route to moderate prosperity has reinforced the groundwork for human rights.

Providing a solid material foundation for protecting and developing human rights. In the process of building a moderately prosperous society, China has maintained its commitment to the new development philosophy. The economy has achieved long-term rapid growth and the basic needs of over one billion people have been met. The urban-rural divide has been resolved and the income distribution profile has been reformed to improve living standards. Targeted poverty reduction and eradication has achieved success, strengthening protection of all vulnerable groups. A social security system covering all the people is in place, with better medical services and a higher overall level of health. Public cultural services have improved. Free compulsory education has been realized in both urban and rural areas. An efficient and ubiquitous information network has been set up. With accelerated efforts to build an eco-civilization, a basic national policy of environmental protection has been implemented, measures to prevent and control pollution have intensified, and the eco-environment has notably improved. In a moderately prosperous society, economic, political, social, cultural and environmental rights are more equitable and more easily accessible to all people to ensure equal rights to participation and development in all fields.

Providing a solid political and democratic foundation for protecting and developing human rights. In achieving moderate prosperity, China has ensured that the Party’s leadership, the people’s position as masters of the country and law-based governance form an indivisible whole. The institutions and mechanisms by which the Party exercises leadership have improved. The system of people’s congresses, the system of CPC-led multiparty cooperation and political consultation, the system of regional ethnic autonomy, and the system of community-level self-governance have developed steadily.
The institutions, standards and procedures of law-based socialist democracy have improved, with more diverse forms of democracy and wider democratic channels. A social governance model based on collaboration and common interests has taken shape and the principle of the people as masters of the country is put into practice in China’s political and social fields. Civil, political and democratic rights are better protected.


Strengthening legal protection for human rights. The Constitution stipulates that the state shall respect and protect human rights, which is an important principle in state governance. Advancing the rule of law has been made a national strategy. Systems and mechanisms to ensure the enforcement of the Constitution are improving. Further progress has been made to ensure sound lawmaking, strict law enforcement, impartial administration of justice, and the observance of law by all. Our efforts to build a country, government, and society based on the rule of law are mutually reinforcing. The system of socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics has been steadily improved, and public awareness of the rule of law has risen markedly.
Good progress has been made in reforming the system of government administration, the national supervision system, and the judicial system. Effective measures have been taken to develop other systems to strengthen checks and oversight over the exercise of power. The role of the rule of law in protecting human rights has been enhanced.


Fostering a culture to respect and protect human rights throughout society. In building a moderately prosperous society, China has promoted the creative evolution of fine traditional culture, and rooted the core socialist values among the people. Public cultural services have been improved, with cultural programs and industries flourishing. Endeavors to achieve moderate prosperity have fostered a Chinese spirit, Chinese values, and Chinese strength, and cultivated stronger cultural confidence. China’s cultural soft power and the international influence of Chinese culture have increased significantly. The process of achieving moderate prosperity helps everyone improve the understanding of their own value, personal dignity and principal status, fostering a culture that respects and protects human rights.

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