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中国共产党尊重和保障人权的伟大实践(双语全文)

新华网 2021-06-25 10:01

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国务院新闻办公室6月24日发表《中国共产党尊重和保障人权的伟大实践》白皮书。全文如下:

 

中国共产党尊重和保障人权的伟大实践
The Communist Party of China and Human Rights Protection
– A 100-Year Quest

 

(2021年6月)
中华人民共和国
国务院新闻办公室
The State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China
June 2021
First Edition 2021

 


目录
Contents

前言
Foreword

一、为人民解放和幸福而奋斗
I.For People's Liberation and Wellbeing

二、尊重和保障人权的执政方略
II.The Principle of Respecting and Protecting Human Rights Embedded in Governance

三、筑牢人民当家作主的根本制度
III.Ensuring the People's Position as Masters of the Country

四、促进各项人权全面发展
IV.Making Comprehensive Progress in Human Rights

五、依法保障公民基本权利
V.Protecting the Basic Rights of Citizens in Accordance with the Law

六、推进世界人权事业发展
VI.Advancing Human Rights Around the World

七、丰富发展了人权文明多样性
VII.Adding Diversity to the Concept of Human Rights

结束语
Conclusion

 

前言
Foreword


2021年是中国共产党成立100周年。中国共产党的100年,创造了尊重和保障人权的伟大奇迹,谱写了人权文明的新篇章。
The year 2021 marks the centenary of the Communist Party of China (CPC). Over the past century, the CPC has invested a huge effort in human rights protection, adding significantly to global human rights progress.


100年前,在中华民族面临内忧外患的危急关头,担负着救国救民使命的中国共产党诞生了。中国产生了共产党,这是开天辟地的大事变。在中国共产党的领导下,中国人民开启了为实现国家富强、民族振兴、人民幸福而奋斗的崭新历程。
A hundred years ago, the CPC came into being – its mission to salvage the country and save the Chinese people at a perilous time of domestic upheaval and foreign aggression. This was an epoch-changing moment. Under the leadership of the CPC, the Chinese people embarked on a new journey towards prosperity, national rejuvenation, and wellbeing.


100年来,中国共产党团结带领中国人民推翻了帝国主义、封建主义和官僚资本主义“三座大山”,建立了中华人民共和国,完成了新民主主义革命和社会主义革命,为有效保障人民各项权利和自由奠定了根本政治前提和牢固制度基础。经过艰辛探索,中国开创了改革开放和社会主义现代化建设新时期,开启了中国特色社会主义新时代,中华民族迎来了从站起来、富起来到强起来的伟大飞跃,踏上了全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程。
Over this period of one hundred years, the CPC has united and led the people in toppling the "three mountains" of imperialism, feudalism and bureaucrat-capitalism, creating the People's Republic of China (PRC), and completing the New Democratic Revolution and the Socialist Revolution. The political and institutional foundations were thereby laid down to ensure the rights and freedoms of the people. Through successes and setbacks, China has pioneered reform and opening up, set the goal of socialist modernization, and ushered in a new era of building socialism with Chinese characteristics. The Chinese nation has stood up, become better off, and grown in strength. Now, it is embarking on a new journey to build a modern socialist country in all respects.


100年来,中国共产党坚持人民至上,坚持将人权的普遍性原则与中国实际相结合,坚持生存权、发展权是首要的基本人权,坚持人民幸福生活是最大的人权,坚持促进人的全面发展,不断增强人民群众的获得感、幸福感、安全感,成功走出了一条中国特色社会主义人权发展道路。
For a hundred years, the CPC has always put people first, applying the principle of universality of human rights in the context of the national conditions. It regards the rights to subsistence and development as the primary and basic human rights, and believes that living a life of contentment is the ultimate human right. It promotes the well-rounded development of the individual, and strives to give every person a stronger sense of gain, happiness and security. Its success in pioneering human rights in a socialist country is unique and readily apparent.


100年来,中国共产党心怀天下,坚持走和平发展道路,坚持促进共同发展。中国坚定维护世界和平,坚持以合作促发展,以发展促人权,积极参与国际人权事务,为全球人权治理贡献中国智慧、提供中国方案,推动世界人权事业发展,与世界各国一道,共同构建人类命运共同体。
For a hundred years, the CPC has committed itself to peaceful development and common progress. China is firm in its international stance – to safeguard world peace and seek progress through cooperation, ensuring human rights with the benefits deriving from development. It has been an active participant in matters of international human rights, providing a Chinese contribution to global human rights governance and progress, and working with other countries to forge a global community of shared future.

 

一、为人民解放和幸福而奋斗
I. For People's Liberation and Wellbeing


(一)近代中国人民的人权惨遭践踏
1. Human Rights Trampled after the Mid-19th Century


中华民族是有着5000多年辉煌灿烂文明史的伟大民族。在人类历史长河中,中国综合国力曾长期居世界前列。但到清朝(1636-1911年)的中后期,特别是1840年鸦片战争之后,由于西方列强对中国的侵略日甚一日,由于统治者的腐败无能,中国的发展开始陷入停滞,逐渐成为半殖民地半封建社会,人民惨遭压迫奴役,陷入深重苦难之中。
The Chinese nation is a great nation boasting a civilization spanning five millennia. China once led the world in composite national strength over a long period of time. But beginning in the middle and latter half of the Qing Dynasty (1636-1911), and especially after the Opium War in 1840, China plunged into stagnation due to a corrupt, incompetent government and ever growing Western aggression. It was eventually reduced to a semi-colonial, semi-feudal state where the people were enslaved and suffered immeasurably.


从1840年开始,列强通过对中国的多次侵略战争和其他方法,与中国政府签订了数以百计的不平等条约、章程、专条,强迫中国割地、赔款,攫取种种特权,构建起殖民、掠夺中国的系统性结构。列强入侵及其殖民政策,成为加在中国人民身上的沉重枷锁,中国人民的尊严和生存权利遭到严重践踏。
Beginning in 1840, the Western imperialist powers, through war and other aggressive means, forced the Chinese government into hundreds of unequal treaties, regulations and conventions, grabbing territory, demanding reparations and privileges, and engaging in a process of colonization and plunder throughout China. Western invasion and colonization shackled the Chinese people, trampling on their dignity and putting their very lives in jeopardy.


国家的不幸就是人民的不幸。在帝国主义、封建主义、官僚资本主义压迫之下,饥饿、贫穷、落后、挨打,是近代中国人权状况的真实写照。
It was a tragedy for the country and the people. Oppressed by imperialism, feudalism and bureaucrat-capitalism, the Chinese people suffered from hunger and poverty and the nation from backwardness and subjugation.


近代中国人民遭遇的生存危机是全方位的。在经济上,中国的农业生产力落后,土地兼并加之苛捐杂税,自然灾害加之战乱破坏,导致大量农民破产沦为雇农甚至流民;工商业虽有一定发展,但规模小、产量低、结构失衡,并且受到外国资本和国内官僚资本的操控,难以为国计民生提供有力支持。经济衰败、民生凋敝,人民在生存线苦苦挣扎。据估算,当时全国有80%的人长期处于饥饿、半饥饿状态,几乎每年都有几万乃至几十万人因饥饿而死。
The subsistence crisis raged in all directions. The economy was in a shambles. Low agricultural productivity, land annexation, harsh taxes and levies, natural disasters, and frequent wars turned large numbers of small farmers and peasants into farm laborers for hire or homeless poor. Industry and commerce developed to a certain extent, but was small in scale, low in productivity and unbalanced in structure. Manipulated by foreign and domestic bureaucrat capital, it was impossible to sustain the nation or the people. Under a shattered economy, the people were destitute and struggled to survive. It is estimated that 80 percent of the population was constantly haunted by dire hunger or inadequate food supply, and that tens or even hundreds of thousands of people starved to death every year.


除了物质上的匮乏,中国人民还面临病疫的折磨和精神上的贫瘠。当时的中国疫病横行,鼠疫、天花、霍乱等传染病肆虐,几乎无年不疫、无省不疫,加之医疗条件差,民众健康状况十分恶劣,旧中国人均寿命仅有35岁。新中国成立时,全国5.4亿人口中,文盲率高达80%,小学实际入学率不到20%,高等教育在校生仅有11.7万人。对于当时中国人民的悲惨遭遇,毛泽东曾指出,“中国人民的贫困和不自由的程度,是世界所少见的”。中国人民的生存权都无法得到保障,更遑论其他基本权利。
China was also tortured by diseases and hindered by the lack of education among its people. Epidemics such as plague, smallpox and cholera swept across the country and recurred every year, taking a heavy toll on the populace due to the lack of health services. The average life expectancy in old China was only 35 years. When the PRC was founded in 1949, 80 percent of the 540 million population were illiterate, less than 20 percent of school-age children were in elementary schools, and there were only 117,000 students receiving higher education. Commenting on the miseries of the people, Mao Zedong said, “The poverty and lack of freedom among the Chinese people are on a scale seldom found.” With the people struggling for survival, it was impossible to talk about any other rights.

 

(二)中国共产党担负起救国救民使命
2. National Salvation on the Shoulders of the CPC


面对山河破碎、生灵涂炭,许多献身于民族进步事业的仁人志士发动了农民起义、洋务自救、维新改良、资产阶级革命等不同形式的救亡图存运动,但都没能使中国人民脱离被压迫被奴役的悲惨境地。实现民族独立、人民解放的重任,历史地落在了中国共产党肩上。
With the nation under threat and the people in pain, many people of lofty ideals and insight devoted themselves to the cause of national salvation – leading peasant uprisings, creating initiatives to learn from the West, attempting reformist experiments, and launching a bourgeois revolution. But none of these freed the Chinese from oppression and slavery. The mission of national independence and the liberation of the people fell to the CPC.


1921年7月,中国共产党第一次全国代表大会召开,正式宣告中国共产党成立。从此,中国革命进入了全新的发展阶段,中国人民的命运开始发生根本性转变,一条属于广大人民的人权保障之路开始铺就。中国最早的一批马克思主义者,如陈独秀、李大钊、毛泽东等,将民族解放、国家独立与人民切身利益紧密地联系在一起。他们深刻地认识到,只有通过革命,才能真正争取与维护无产阶级和劳动人民的权利,使中国摆脱积贫积弱,使中国人民摆脱苦难屈辱。
In July 1921, the First National Congress of the Communist Party of China announced the founding of the Party, heralding a new stage in the Chinese revolution. It reversed the tragic fate of the Chinese people and laid down the foundations for them to enjoy their basic rights. The first Marxists in China, including Chen Duxiu, Li Dazhao and Mao Zedong, already understood the close connection between liberation, independence and the people's interests.They knew well that only through revolution could the proletariat and the working people establish and maintain their rights, and that only through revolution could China get back on its feet and its people emerge from poverty and humiliation.


中国共产党自成立之日起,就以无产阶级政党的面貌出现,通过各种纲领、主张、宣言,鲜明地宣扬了救国救民和争取人权的立场与主张。为中国人民谋幸福,为中华民族谋复兴,是中国共产党人的初心和使命,也是中国共产党人权思想之本。中国共产党以鲜明的人民立场,赢得了中国人民的拥护和支持,成为领导中国革命的核心力量。
The CPC was a party of the proletariat from the very beginning. Through its programs, proposals, and declarations, it made its mission clear and its stance known – to save the nation and secure human rights for its people. The original aspiration and the mission of the Party is to seek happiness for the people of China and rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. It is also the root of its stance on human rights. The CPC, with its people-centered position, has won the support of the Chinese people, making it the spine of the Chinese revolution.

 

(三)新民主主义革命时期的人权保障实践
3. Human Rights Protection During the New Democratic Revolution


在领导人民争取自由解放、实现当家作主的新民主主义革命伟大斗争中,中国共产党始终将马克思主义人权理论同中国实际相结合,开创了既符合人权的普遍性原则又具有鲜明中国特色的人权保障之路。
In the New Democratic Revolution to liberate and free the people and make them masters of the country, the CPC always applied Marxist human rights theory to the Chinese context, pioneering a path of human rights predicated on the universality of human rights and one that is distinctively Chinese.


自大革命时期(1924-1927年)开始,中国共产党就将改善民生、保障人民生存权作为重要任务。在土地革命战争时期(1927-1937年),中国共产党领导中华苏维埃政府颁布并实施了土地法,不仅让农民在政治上翻身,而且在经济上分到田地,获得基本生存权利。全面抗日战争时期(1937-1945年),中国共产党制定了一系列保障人权的条例细则,领导陕甘宁边区实行“减租减息”政策。解放战争时期(1945-1949年),中国共产党提出保障人权、解救民生,领导制定《中国土地法大纲》等文件,在拥有1亿多人口的解放区开展土地改革,实行耕者有其田,消灭了封建生产关系。中国共产党还积极组织生产运动,确保自给自足,鼓励发展私营工商业,出台社会优抚等政策措施,努力保障民生。
In the Great Revolution (1924-1927), the CPC took on improving people's lives and protecting their right to subsistence as key objectives. In the Agrarian Revolutionary War (1927-1937), the CPC-led Chinese Soviet Government promulgated the Land Law, giving the peasants political rights as well as land to till, so that they could make a living. In the full-scale phase of the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression (1937-1945), the Party formulated a series of regulations and measures for human rights protection, and enacted tax and interest reduction policies in the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region. In the War of Liberation (1945-1949), the Party emphasized protection of human rights and ensuring basic livelihoods for the people, formulated the Outline of the Land Law of China and carried out land reform among 100 million people in the liberated areas, distributing land among peasants and putting an end to feudal production relations. It organized production campaigns to ensure self-sufficiency, encouraged privately-owned industrial and commercial businesses, and provided social relief, all to ensure the people's wellbeing.


实现人民当家作主是新民主主义革命人权保障的主要任务。在中国共产党领导的中央苏区、陕甘宁边区实行普选制度,给长期受到压迫的人民以参政议政的权利。抗战时期,抗日根据地实行“三三制”,建立抗日民主政权(共产党员、党外进步人士和中间派各占1/3)。这些政策和制度,大大提高了人民群众参与革命、参与政权管理的热情。
Making the people masters of the country was a primary goal in ensuring human rights during the New Democratic Revolution. Universal suffrage was implemented in the CPC-led Central Soviet Area and the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region, and the long-oppressed people finally had the right to participate in politics and have their voice heard. During the War Against Japanese Aggression, the base areas established democratic governments with CPC members, progressive non-CPC figures, and centrists each occupying one third of the official posts. These policies and systems greatly encouraged the people to take part in revolution and political administration.


保护妇女合法权益。中共中央制定有关妇女解放和改革婚姻家庭问题的政策纲领,各边区政府特别是中央工农民主政府先后制定适用于全苏区的婚姻法和婚姻条例,废除封建包办买卖婚姻,禁止蓄婢纳妾,确立一夫一妻的婚姻制度,实行婚姻自由,婚后所得财产为夫妻共同财产,第一次使广大妇女在人身上、经济上获得了解放,提高了广大妇女的社会地位,激发了妇女参与革命和生产的积极性。
The legitimate rights and interests of women were protected. Following the guidelines of the CPC Central Committee on women's liberation and marriage reform, and the marriage laws and regulations enacted and applied to all the soviet areas, arranged and mercenary marriage was abolished, and keeping maids or concubines was forbidden. Monogamy was established along with freedom of marriage, and postnuptial property was regarded as community property. For the first time, women gained the freedom of their person and economic equality in marriage. With rising social status, women became more active in revolution and in the workplace.


文教卫生事业也在中国共产党领导的地区发展起来。中央苏区颁布了《中华苏维埃共和国宪法大纲》,明确劳苦大众享有平等的受教育权,并兴建学校,组织各类讲习班,着力提高人民群众文化水平。在陕甘宁边区,政府采取夜校、读报组等方式扫除文盲,并因陋就简开设中小学校,创办鲁迅艺术学院、延安自然科学院等高校与研究机构,努力发展文化科学事业。中华苏维埃共和国成立中央防疫委员会,省、县、区三级设立卫生部(科),大力建设工农医院、贫民诊所和公共卫生所,培养医务人员,组织群众性防疫卫生运动,明显改善了人民医疗卫生状况。
Culture, education, and health services flourished in the CPC-led areas. In the Outline of the Constitution of the Chinese Soviet Republic promulgated in the Central Soviet Area, it was stipulated that the working masses enjoyed equal right to education. Schools were built and training sessions organized to help improve people's educational levels. In the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region the government set up night schools and newspaper reading groups to eliminate illiteracy, opened elementary and middle schools despite the difficult conditions, and founded the Lu Xun School of the Arts, the Yan'an Academy of Natural Sciences, and other institutions of higher education and research. The Chinese Soviet Republic formed an epidemic prevention and control committee at the central level, and health departments (offices) were set up at the district, county and provincial levels. Hospitals were built for workers and peasants, as well as clinics for the poor and public health centers. The cohort of health workers was strengthened and mass campaigns were rolled out to prevent and control epidemics. All this significantly improved people's health.

 

(四)新中国为保障人权开辟广阔道路
4. Human Rights Protection in the PRC


1949年新中国成立,标志着人民权利新的时代到来,标志着近代以来中国人民遭受剥削、压迫和奴役历史的终结,也标志着一个共产党领导的东方社会主义大国人权实践新的开始。
The founding of the PRC in 1949 ushered in a new era for people's rights. It put an end to the exploitation, oppression and slavery that had shackled the Chinese nation for a century, and signified the beginning of substantial progress in human rights in a socialist country under the leadership of the CPC.


新中国成立以来,中国人权事业的发展经历了三个历史阶段:
Since 1949, human rights in China have undergone three stages of development.


第一个阶段:新中国成立后,中国共产党领导中国人民进行社会主义革命和建设,确立了社会主义基本制度,完成了中国历史上最为广泛而深刻的社会变革,制定我国第一部社会主义类型的宪法,为中国人权事业发展奠定了根本政治前提和制度基础。在政治建设方面,建立和巩固了人民民主的政治制度,确立了人民民主原则和社会主义原则,确立了人民代表大会制度,从制度上保障了国家一切权力属于人民。在经济建设方面,基本完成土地改革,激发了人民群众巨大创造力;对农业、手工业和资本主义工商业进行社会主义改造,建立起社会主义的基本经济制度,保证了人民平等参与经济发展和分享劳动成果。在社会建设方面,颁布实施婚姻法,“实行男女婚姻自由、一夫一妻、男女权利平等、保护妇女和子女合法利益的新民主主义婚姻制度”;促进教育、医疗卫生事业发展,建立起省、市、县和县、乡、村三级医疗预防保健网,建立劳动保险和社会救济制度。在民族政策方面,反对和否定民族压迫和歧视,坚持民族平等,实行民族区域自治制度。在法制建设方面,依据《中华人民共和国宪法》,制定并实施其他重要法律,保障公民基本权利。
Stage 1: Beginning in 1949, the Chinese people committed themselves to socialist revolution and economic development under CPC leadership, establishing the basic systems of socialism, completing the most extensive and profound process of social change in Chinese history, and promulgating the first socialist constitution. All these laid the political and institutional foundation for human rights in China.

From a political perspective, the system of people's democracy was established and consolidated, with democracy of the people and socialism as the basic principles. With the implementation of the system of people's congresses, it was guaranteed that all rights of the state belonged to the people.

From an economic perspective, the completion of the land reform triggered a burst of great creativity among the people. Socialist transformation was completed in agriculture, individual craft industries, and capitalist industry and commerce, and the basic socialist system was formed to ensure equal access to economic development and the sharing of economic gains.

From a social perspective, the Marriage Law was promulgated, stipulating the free choice of spouses, the principle of monogamy, equal rights for men and women, and the protection of the lawful rights and interests of women and children. Efforts were made to promote education and health services, and medical and preventive care networks were established at every local level – village, township, county, city and province. Labor insurance was created and social relief was provided. The government stood firmly against ethnic oppression and discrimination, upheld equality among all ethnic groups, and introduced regional ethnic autonomy. In developing the legal framework, important laws were formulated and promulgated in line with the Constitution of the People's Republic of China to protect citizens' basic rights.


第二个阶段:改革开放以来,中国共产党领导中国人民成功开辟了中国特色社会主义道路,极大地解放和发展了社会生产力,人民生存权、发展权和各项基本权利得到更好保障,中国人权事业得到大发展。改革开放是中国共产党领导人民进行的一场伟大革命。中国共产党把发展作为执政兴国的第一要务和解决中国所有问题的关键,大力发展社会生产力,努力以发展促进人权保障,不断提高人民生活水平,极大地调动了人民的积极性。在中国共产党的领导下,中国坚持全面依法治国,将尊重和保障人权写入宪法作为国家治理的一条重要原则,促进人权事业发展被纳入国家发展战略和规划,适合本国国情的人权保障制度建立并不断完善,中国特色人权保障体系初步形成。
Stage 2: Beginning in 1978, when reform and opening up was introduced, the CPC led the Chinese people on a path of socialism with Chinese characteristics, unleashing an immense wave of social development and productivity. Thanks to tremendous progress in human rights the people enjoyed better protection of their rights to subsistence and development and other basic rights. Reform and opening up is a great revolution on the part of the Chinese people under CPC leadership. The Party pursues development as its top priority in governance and as the key to solving the problems of China; it strives to promote social productivity and improve human rights protection through development. During this stage the people enjoyed better lives and grew more active economically and socially. Under CPC leadership, China upheld the rule of law in all areas, and included in the Constitution as an important principle of national governance respect for and protection of human rights. Human rights progress was included in national development strategies and plans, the mechanisms for ensuring human rights in the context of China's realities were improved, and the system for ensuring human rights with Chinese characteristics began to take shape.


第三个阶段:中共十八大以来,中国特色社会主义进入新时代,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,脱贫攻坚目标任务如期完成,决胜全面建成小康社会取得决定性成就,中国人权事业全面发展。中国共产党坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,立足新发展阶段、贯彻新发展理念、构建新发展格局,以推动高质量发展为主题,以满足人民日益增长的美好生活需要为根本目的,统筹推进“五位一体”总体布局、协调推进“四个全面”战略布局,人民的获得感、幸福感、安全感大幅提升。中国倡议的“一带一路”建设扎实推进,构建人类命运共同体重大理念成为广泛共识。
Stage 3: Since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new era. China has completed the mission of eradicating absolute poverty as scheduled under the strong leadership of the Party Central Committee with Xi Jinping at the core. Decisive success has been achieved in the final stage of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, and human rights protection has been brought to new heights. Upholding people-centered development, the CPC is grounding its efforts in the new development stage, applying the new development philosophy, and creating a new framework of development. Focusing on high-quality development, it endeavors to meet the fundamental goal of satisfying the people’s growing desire for a better life. Implementing the Five-sphere Integrated Plan[ This refers to China’s overall plan for building socialism with Chinese characteristics, that is, to promote coordinated progress in the economic, political, cultural, social and eco-environmental fields. ] and the Four-pronged Comprehensive Strategy[ This refers to China’s strategic plan for building socialism with Chinese characteristics, that is, to make comprehensive moves to complete a moderately prosperous society in all respects, to further reform, to advance the rule of law, and to strengthen Party self-governance. ], the Party has made sure that the people enjoy a greater sense of gain, happiness and security. As the Belt and Road Initiative builds momentum, the concept of a global community of shared future has been widely recognized.

 

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