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中国共产党尊重和保障人权的伟大实践(双语全文)

新华网 2021-06-25 10:01

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二、尊重和保障人权的执政方略
II. The Principle of Respecting and Protecting Human Rights Embedded in Governance


(一)尊重和保障人权的宪法原则
1. In the Constitution as a Guiding Principle


宪法是国家的根本法,是公民权利的保障书。在中国共产党的领导下,中国建立了以宪法为核心的中国特色社会主义法律体系,为保障人权夯实法治基础。
As the fundamental law of a country, the Constitution is a written guarantee of the rights of citizens. Under the leadership of the CPC, China has established a Chinese socialist legal system with the Constitution at the core, thus laying a solid legal foundation for ensuring human rights.


1954年9月,第一届全国人民代表大会第一次会议通过《中华人民共和国宪法》,宣告“中华人民共和国的一切权力属于人民”,规定公民在政治、经济、社会、文化、人身等方面享有的广泛权利与自由。1982年12月,第五届全国人民代表大会第五次会议通过的现行宪法,将“公民的基本权利和义务”提前到第二章,置于第一章“总纲”之后,更彰显了公民权利的重要地位,同时也扩大了权利保护的范围。此后,全国人大又分别在1988、1993、1999、2004、2018年五次通过宪法修正案,从基本经济制度、分配制度、保护公民私有财产、建立健全社会保障制度等方面,不断加强对人权的保障。
In September 1954, the First Session of the First National People's Congress (NPC) adopted the Constitution of the PRC, which declared that all power in the country belongs to the people. It provided a wide range of rights and freedom that citizens enjoy in political, economic, social, cultural, personal and other respects. In December 1982, the Fifth Session of the Fifth NPC adopted the current Constitution of the PRC, in which "The Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens" was moved forward and made second only to Chapter I, "General Principles". This adjustment highlighted the importance of citizens’ rights. Meanwhile, this Constitution also expanded the range of rights under protection. Later, the NPC adopted five amendments to the Constitution in 1988, 1993, 1999, 2004 and 2018, to better protect human rights. These involved the basic economic system, distribution system, protection of citizens' private property, and the social security system.


2004年3月,第十届全国人民代表大会第二次会议通过《中华人民共和国宪法修正案》,正式将“国家尊重和保障人权”载入宪法,由此,“尊重和保障人权”就成为整个中国特色社会主义法治体系的基本原则,也成为所有国家机关、武装力量、政党、社会团体、企业事业组织必须遵守的行为准则和法律义务,一切法律法规规章规范性文件都不得与之相抵触,任何与之相违背的行为都必须予以追究。
The amendment adopted at the Second Session of the 10th NPC, held in March 2004, added the line "The state respects and safeguards human rights" into the Constitution. Since then, respecting and protecting human rights has been a basic principle of the system of socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics and a binding rule of conduct and a legal obligation of all state organs, armed forces, political parties, social organizations, enterprises and public institutions. No laws, regulations, rules and normative documents can be in conflict with the principle, and accountability must be enforced on all acts that violate it.


中国共产党带领人民全面认真实施宪法,带头履行尊重和保障人权的宪法责任。中国通过健全法律法规和制度体系,发展国家各项事业等,推动宪法实施,落实宪法规定的人权保障原则和精神。建立适合政治制度和基本国情的宪法实施和监督机制,设立全国人大宪法和法律委员会,推进合宪性审查,加强宪法实施和监督,确保宪法规定落到实处,更好维护宪法权威。
The CPC leads the people in fully and strictly enforcing the Constitution and takes the lead in fulfilling the constitutional responsibility of respecting and protecting human rights. This has been achieved through improving laws, regulations and institutional systems and developing various undertakings of the state. China has established mechanisms best suited to its political systems and national conditions for enforcing the Constitution and the oversight thereof. It has set up the NPC Constitution and Law Committee to carry out constitutional review, so as to better uphold the authority of the Constitution and ensure that the provisions of the Constitution are observed.

 

(二)尊重和保障人权的执政理念
2. In State Governance as a Philosophy


全心全意为人民服务是中国共产党的根本宗旨。中国共产党奉行以人民为中心的发展思想,坚持执政为民,做到发展为了人民、发展依靠人民、发展成果由人民共享,将尊重和保障人权贯穿于执政和自身建设之中。
Serving the people wholeheartedly is the fundamental purpose of the CPC. The Party adheres to a people-centered philosophy of development, exercises power for the people, and ensures that development is for the people and by the people and that its benefits are shared by the people. It embodies the principle of respecting and protecting human rights in its governance and self-improvement.


1997年召开的中共十五大,首次将“保证人民依法享有广泛的权利和自由,尊重和保障人权”写入大会报告之中。2002年召开的中共十六大,重申“尊重和保障人权”,并将“人民的政治、经济和文化权益得到切实尊重和保障”“促进人的全面发展”等内容纳入全面建设小康社会的目标之中。2007年召开的中共十七大,将“尊重和保障人权,依法保证全体社会成员平等参与、平等发展的权利”写入大会报告,并将“尊重和保障人权”正式载入《中国共产党章程》。
At the 15th CPC National Congress held in 1997, the report to the congress included for the first time the following expression: "ensuring that the people enjoy extensive rights and freedom endowed by law, and respecting and guaranteeing human rights". The 16th CPC National Congress held in 2002 reiterated that "human rights are respected and guaranteed", and included the following words in the goals of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects: “The political, economic and cultural rights and interests of the people will be respected and guaranteed in real earnest” and “promoting the all-round development of people”. The report to the 17th CPC National Congress held in 2007 read that “We must respect and guarantee human rights, and ensure the equal right to participation and development for all members of society in accordance with the law”, and “It [the CPC] respects and safeguards human rights" was formally added into the CPC Constitution.


中共十八大以来,中国共产党从全面深化改革、加快推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化出发,更加注重健全尊重和保障人权的体制机制。2012年,中共十八大将“人权得到切实尊重和保障”写入大会报告,并提升为全面建成小康社会和全面深化改革开放的重要战略目标之一。2014年,中共十八届四中全会通过《中共中央关于全面推进依法治国若干重大问题的决定》,强调“加强人权司法保障”“增强全社会尊重和保障人权意识”,明确提出加强人权司法保障和重点领域立法,依法保障公民权利,加快完善体现权利公平、机会公平、规则公平的法律制度,保障公民人身权、财产权、基本政治权利等各项权利不受侵犯,保障公民经济、文化、社会等各方面权利得到落实,实现公民权利保障法治化。2015年,中共十八届五中全会明确,“人权得到切实保障”是整个“十三五”期间法治建设的一个主要目标。
Since the 18th CPC National Congress held in 2012, to further reform on all fronts and accelerate the modernization of China’s governance system and capacity, the CPC has attached greater importance to improving the systems and mechanisms for respecting and protecting human rights. At the 18th CPC National Congress, the principle that “human rights should be fully respected and protected” was included in the report to the congress and listed as one of the key strategic goals of building a moderately prosperous society and furthering reform and opening up in an all- round way. In 2014, the Fourth Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee adopted the Resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Major Issues Concerning Comprehensively Advancing the Rule of Law. The resolution emphasized the need to “provide stronger judicial protection of human rights” and to “strengthen awareness throughout the whole of society about the need to respect and safeguard human rights”. It stipulated ways to ensure that citizens’ rights are protected by the law: enhancing judicial protection of human rights and legislation in key areas, protecting citizens’ rights in accordance with the law, establishing a legal system featuring equal rights, equal opportunities and fair rules for all, ensuring the inviolability of citizens’ rights including personal rights, property rights and basic political rights, and making sure that citizens enjoy rights in economic, cultural, social and all other respects. The Fifth Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee in 2015 made it clear that “human rights should be fully protected” is a major goal of promoting the rule of law during the entire 13th Five-year Plan period.


2017年,中共十九大报告明确,新时代中国社会主要矛盾是人民日益增长的美好生活需要和不平衡不充分的发展之间的矛盾,必须坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,不断促进人的全面发展、全体人民共同富裕。中共十九大报告绘就了中国人权事业的美好蓝图:从2020年到2035年,在全面建成小康社会的基础上,人民平等参与、平等发展权利得到充分保障;从2035年到本世纪中叶,在基本实现现代化的基础上,把中国建成富强民主文明和谐美丽的社会主义现代化强国,全体人民共同富裕基本实现,中国人民将享有更加幸福安康的生活;加强人权法治保障,保证人民依法享有广泛权利和自由。2019年,中共十九届四中全会指出,增进人民福祉、促进人的全面发展是中国共产党立党为公、执政为民的本质要求。2020年,中共十九届五中全会通过《中共中央关于制定国民经济和社会发展第十四个五年规划和二〇三五年远景目标的建议》,将“促进人的全面发展和社会全面进步”“促进人权事业全面发展”等作为中国发展的更高目标。
In 2017, the report to the 19th CPC National Congress stated: “the principal contradiction facing Chinese society in the new era is that between unbalanced and inadequate development and the people's ever-growing needs for a better life. We must therefore continue commitment to our people-centered philosophy of development, and work to promote well-rounded human development and common prosperity for everyone.”

The report drew a blueprint for future progress in China’s human rights: From 2020 to 2035, on the basis of completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects, the rights of the people to participate and to develop as equals will be adequately protected; from 2035 to the middle of the 21st century, building on having achieved basic modernization, we will develop China into a great modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious, and beautiful; common prosperity for everyone will be largely achieved; the Chinese people will enjoy happier, safer, and healthier lives; we will strengthen legal protection for human rights to ensure that the people enjoy extensive rights and freedoms as prescribed by law.

In 2019, the Fourth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee pointed out that improving the wellbeing of the people and promoting well-rounded human development are essential to the Party's commitment to serving the public good and exercising power in the interests of the people. In 2020, the proposal of the CPC Central Committee on formulating the 14th Five-year Plan for economic and social development and the long-range objectives through the year 2035 was adopted at the Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee. The proposal set higher goals for China’s development, which include promoting well-rounded human development and all-round social advancement and promoting comprehensive progress in human rights.

 

(三)尊重和保障人权的国家发展规划
3. In National Development Plans for Its Realization


从1953年到2021年,中国已制定了十四个国民经济和社会发展规划(计划),对国家经济、社会、文化、环境等方面发展作出安排。
From 1953 to 2021, China has formulated 14 plans for national economic and social development, providing for the country’s development in economic, social, cultural, environmental and other respects.


根据中共十九届五中全会建议,2021年3月召开的第十三届全国人民代表大会第四次会议,讨论通过了《中华人民共和国国民经济和社会发展第十四个五年规划和2035年远景目标纲要》,具体提出了未来五年及十五年中国经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设、生态文明建设等各方面建设的目标、任务、方针、措施。其中强调,坚持以人民为中心,坚持新发展理念,坚持人民主体地位,坚持共同富裕方向,维护人民根本利益,激发全体人民的积极性、主动性、创造性,促进社会公平正义,增进人民福祉,不断实现人民对美好生活的向往。这些发展思想蕴含着极其丰富的尊重和保障人权精神。
In accordance with the proposal adopted at the Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee, the Fourth Session of the 13th NPC held in March 2021 deliberated and adopted the Outline of the 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-2025) for National Economic and Social Development and the Long-Range Objectives Through the Year 2035 of the PRC. The outline set forth specific objectives, tasks, policies and measures for China’s development in economic, political, cultural, social, ecological and other fields in the next five years and 15 years. In the outline, it was emphasized that we must pursue people-centered development, adopt a new vision for development, and ensure the principal status of the people; we must move steadily toward common prosperity, safeguard the fundamental interests of the people, and unleash their enthusiasm, initiative and creativity; we must promote social equity and justice, improve the wellbeing of the people, and realize the people’s aspiration for a better life. This approach to development embodies the principle of respecting and protecting human rights.


保障经济、社会和文化权利,特别是工作权利、基本生活水准权利、社会保障权利、健康权利、受教育权利、文化权利、环境权利、财产权利等,关系到每个人的生存发展。国家制定各项事业发展纲要、规划、计划等,不断推进公民基本权利保障。仅过去十年,中国政府有关部门就制定并实施了《中国农村扶贫开发纲要(2011-2020年)》《“健康中国2030”规划纲要》《国家中长期教育改革和发展规划纲要(2010-2020年)》《人力资源和社会保障事业发展“十三五”规划纲要》《全国生态环境保护纲要》《“十三五”促进民族地区和人口较少民族发展规划》《中国妇女发展纲要(2011-2020年)》《中国儿童发展纲要(2011-2020年)》《“十三五”国家老龄事业发展和养老体系建设规划》《中国残疾人事业“十三五”发展纲要》《乡村振兴战略规划(2018-2022年)》等几十个涉及多领域的保障人民生存权、发展权的政策文件。国家还就保障公民权利与政治权利,特别是保障公民的人身权利、获得公正审判的权利、宗教信仰自由、知情权参与权表达权监督权等,制定了一系列保障性制度和措施。
Protecting people's economic, social and cultural rights, especially their rights to employment, basic living, social security, health, education, culture, environment, property and other services, is essential to the rights of all to life and development. The state makes constant progress in protecting citizens' basic rights by formulating outlines and plans for the development of various undertakings. In the past 10 years alone, the Chinese government formulated dozens of policy documents concerning people’s rights to subsistence and development in many fields. These include the Outline of Development-Driven Poverty Alleviation in Rural Areas (2011-2020), the Outline of Healthy China 2030, the Outline of National Medium- and Long-Term Program for Education Reform and Development (2010-2020), the Outline of the Development of Human Resources and Social Security Undertakings During the 13th Five-Year Plan Period, the Outline of China’s Environmental Protection, the Program for Developing Ethnic Minority Areas and Ethnic Groups with Small Populations During the 13th Five-Year Plan Period, the Program for the Development of Women in China (2011-2020), the Program for the Development of Children in China (2011-2020), the Plan for the Development of China’s Old-Age Programs and Elderly-Care System, the Outline for the Development of People with Disabilities During the 13th Five-Year Plan Period, and the Rural Revitalization Strategic Plan (2018-2022). China also worked out a series of institutions and measures to protect citizens’ civil and political rights, particularly citizens’ personal rights, their rights to fair trial, freedom of religion, the rights to be informed, to be engaged and to be heard, and the right to oversee.


中国积极响应国际社会倡议,自2009年以来,已制定实施3期国家人权行动计划,成为世界上为数不多的连续制定人权行动计划的国家。目前,第4期《国家人权行动计划(2021-2025年)》的制定工作也已展开。中国的国家人权行动计划已实现与国家发展规划的对接和统一。
China actively responds to the initiatives of the international community. Since 2009, it has worked out three national human rights action plans, which is quite unusual among countries of the world. Currently, the work has begun to produce the fourth – the National Human Rights Action Plan (2021-2025). China has integrated its national human rights action plans with its national development plans.

 

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