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中国共产党尊重和保障人权的伟大实践(双语全文)

新华网 2021-06-25 10:01

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六、推进世界人权事业发展
VI. Advancing Human Rights Around the World


中国共产党坚持为中国人民谋自由与幸福,为人类社会谋和平与进步。中国共产党以自己的实际行动证明,她是一个爱好和平与进步的政党,是一个献身人类正义事业的政党,是一个推动世界人权事业不断发展的政党。
The CPC is committed to bringing freedom and happiness to the Chinese people, and peace and progress to the whole of humanity. Its achievements prove that it is a peace-loving political party committed to progress, justice and human rights in the world.


(一)致力于世界和平与进步事业
1. Devoted to World Peace and Progress


在新中国成立之初,中国共产党就把维护世界和平作为最为关切的人类命运大事。中国积极支持广大发展中国家摆脱殖民统治、实现民族独立、消除种族隔离的正义事业。20世纪50年代,中国共产党率先提出互相尊重主权和领土完整、互不侵犯、互不干涉内政、平等互利、和平共处五项原则。1955年,万隆会议将和平共处五项原则确认为亚非国家建立友好合作和亲善睦邻关系的基础。20世纪60年代兴起的不结盟运动把和平共处五项原则作为指导原则。1970年和1974年联合国大会通过的有关宣言接受了和平共处五项原则。时至今日,和平共处五项原则不仅是中国共产党处理国际事务的重要基石,而且获得了国际社会广泛赞同与遵守,被公认为国际法和国际关系的基本准则。
Since the founding of the PRC in 1949, the CPC has taken world peace as its most serious concern, because it is critical to the future of humanity. China supported the efforts of developing countries to get rid of colonial domination, achieve national independence, and end racial segregation. In the 1950s, the CPC initiated the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence:

•mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity

•mutual non-aggression

•non-interference in each other's internal affairs

•equality and mutual benefit

•peaceful coexistence

In 1955, the Bandung Conference set these five principles as the basis for Asian and African countries to establish friendship, cooperation and good-neighborly relations. The Non-Aligned Movement that rose in the 1960s set these principles as its guideline. These principles were also accepted in a number of declarations adopted at the 1970 and 1974 UN general assemblies. The five principles have been an important foundation by which the CPC handles China’s foreign affairs, and have become a cornerstone of international law and international relations, widely recognized and observed by the international community.


20世纪70年代末80年代初,中国共产党审时度势,作出和平与发展是时代主题的判断。中国高举和平、发展、合作、共赢的旗帜,成为促进人类社会和平发展的重要力量。中国秉持《联合国宪章》宗旨和原则,维护以联合国为核心的国际体系和以国际法为基础的国际秩序,坚持共商共建共享的全球治理观和共同、综合、合作、可持续的新安全观,着力推动和平解决争端、维护世界和平和地区安全稳定。自1990年起,中国军队正式加入联合国维和行动;2000年,中国首次派遣警察执行维和任务。迄今,中国是联合国安理会常任理事国中派出维和人员最多的国家,也是联合国维和经费的第二大摊款国。中国已累计向苏丹、黎巴嫩、柬埔寨、利比亚等国家和地区派出维和军事人员4万余人次,参加了近30项联合国维和行动。
During the late 1970s and early 1980s, the CPC made the judgment that peace and development are the themes of today’s world. Upholding peace, development, cooperation and mutual benefit, China has become a major force in promoting world peace and progress. Adhering to the purposes and principles of the United Nations Charter, China is committed to upholding the UN-centered international system and the international law-based global order. To promote peaceful settlement of disputes, and safeguard world peace and regional security and stability, it advocates global governance based on extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits, and champions a new vision of security that is common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustainable.

China began to participate in UN peacekeeping operations in 1990, and dispatched peacekeeping police for the first time in 2000. It now ranks first among the permanent members of the UN Security Council in terms of the number of peacekeepers dispatched, and is the second largest fund contributor to the UN's peacekeeping actions. China has sent more than 40,000 military personnel to participate in about 30 UN peacekeeping missions in Sudan, Lebanon, Cambodia, Libya, and other countries and regions.


中国积极参与国际军控、裁军和防扩散进程,反对军备竞赛,维护全球战略平衡与稳定。中国签署或加入《不扩散核武器条约》等20余个多边军控、裁军和防扩散条约。中国作为联合国安理会常任理事国,积极参与国际和地区热点问题的政治解决。中国积极参与国际执法安全合作,在联合国、国际刑警组织、上海合作组织等国际和地区组织框架下加强合作,打击一切恐怖主义、分裂主义、极端主义犯罪和毒品犯罪。
China actively participates in international arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation, opposes arms races, and safeguards global strategic balance and stability. China has signed up more than 20 multilateral arms control, disarmament or non-proliferation treaties such as the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. As a UN Security Council permanent member, China is active in the political settlement of international and regional flashpoints, and in international cooperation on law enforcement and security. To combat terrorism, separatism, extremism, and drug-related crimes it has intensified cooperation under the framework of international and regional organizations, including the UN, the International Criminal Police Organization and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.


中国在致力于实现自身发展、消除贫困的同时,通过援建成套项目、提供一般物资、开展技术合作和人力资源开发合作、派遣援外医疗队和志愿者、提供紧急人道主义援助以及减免受援国债务等方式,向其他发展中国家提供不附加任何政治条件的发展援助,帮助受援国增强自主发展能力,丰富和改善人民生活,促进经济发展和社会进步。中国开展对外援助70多年来,共向166个国家和国际组织提供了援助,派遣60多万名援助人员,先后7次宣布无条件免除重债穷国和最不发达国家对华到期政府无息贷款债务。中国积极向亚洲、非洲、拉丁美洲和加勒比地区、大洋洲的69个国家提供医疗援助,先后为120多个发展中国家落实联合国千年发展目标提供帮助。自1998年以来,中国通过捐款、援助物资、举办培训、实地指导等方式,向40余国提供了总价值超过1亿元的人道主义扫雷援助,培训了1000余名专业扫雷人员,帮助雷患国清除雷患。
Committed to poverty elimination and its own development, China also provides assistance, without any political conditions, to strengthen other developing countries’ capacity for development, improve and enrich the lives of their people, and promote their economic growth and social progress. China’s aid takes various forms, including complete projects, goods and materials, technological cooperation, cooperation on training human resources, medical teams and volunteers, humanitarian aid, and debt relief. Over the past seven decades, it has assisted 166 countries and international organizations, sent over 600,000 people on aid missions, and canceled matured government interest-free debts owed by heavily indebted poor countries and least-developed countries on seven occasions. It has provided medical assistance to 69 Asian, African, Latin American and Caribbean, and Oceanian countries, and helped more than 120 developing countries achieve the UN Millennium Development Goals. Since 1998, in order to support mine-clearance in over 40 affected countries and help their rebuilding efforts, China has provided RMB100 million in the forms of donations, materials, training sessions and on-the-spot guidance, and trained more than 1,000 demining specialists.


中国积极参与联合国2030年可持续发展议程磋商,全面做好国内落实工作,率先发布落实议程的国别方案和进展报告,在多个领域实现早期收获。在南南合作框架下,为其他发展中国家落实议程提供帮助。截至2020年,中国-联合国和平与发展基金2030年可持续发展议程子基金相继启动实施34个项目,涵盖经济、社会、环境三大领域,为全球落实议程注入强大动力。2015年,中国宣布设立南南合作援助基金,目前已在亚洲、非洲、美洲等地区50多个国家实施了100余个有关救灾、卫生、妇幼、难民、环保等领域的发展合作项目。
China actively participates in the consultations on the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. It has implemented the agenda at home in all respects, and took the lead in publishing its national plan and progress report, delivering early results in a number of fields. China has assisted other developing countries to pursue the agenda within the south-south cooperation framework. By 2020, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Sub-Fund of the China-UN Peace and Development Trust Fund had launched 34 projects covering the economy, society and the environment in support of the agenda. The South-South Cooperation Assistance Fund launched by China in 2015 has carried out over 100 development cooperation projects concerning disaster relief, health, women and children, refugees and environmental protection in more than 50 countries in Asia, Africa, America and other continents.

 

(二)积极参与国际人权事务
2. Engaging in International Human Rights Undertakings


中国先后批准或加入了26项国际人权文书,其中包括6项联合国核心人权条约。中国信守所承担的人权条约义务,积极将国内法律和政策与条约义务相衔接,及时提交履约报告,全面客观反映中国在履约过程中取得的进展、遇到的问题与困难因素,切实履行国际人权条约义务。中国积极参加各条约机构对中国履约报告的审议,注重与相关人权条约机构开展建设性对话,结合国情积极采纳建议。自2009年以来,中国3次接受联合国人权理事会普遍定期审议并顺利通过核可,中国对各国所提建议均给予认真、负责任的反馈。绝大多数国家肯定中国人权发展成就和中国对世界人权事业作出的贡献。
China has signed 26 international human rights instruments, including six core UN conventions. It fulfills its obligations prescribed in these human rights conventions, ensures that the formulation, legislation, and any amendments of its laws and policies are consistent with these conventions, and submits periodic reports to give feedback on the progress made and any difficulties and problems encountered in implementing them. China attends the reviews from the treaty bodies on its implementation. China has conducted constructive dialogue with the relevant treaty bodies and adopted their suggestions in accordance with the actual conditions in China. It has also undertaken three cycles of United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) Universal Periodic Review since 2009, with its reports being adopted, and it has given due attention and responsible feedback to all suggestions from other countries. Most countries have affirmed China’s achievements in this regard and its contribution to international human rights.


自1971年中国恢复在联合国合法席位后,便积极参与国际人权机制。自1982年起,中国正式担任人权委员会成员国并一直连选连任。2006年人权理事会成立以来,中国已五度当选理事会成员,有近20名中国籍专家担任联合国多个多边人权机构或专门委员会的委员。中国同联合国人权事务高级专员及其办公室保持建设性接触,先后8次接待人权高专访华,多次邀请高专办官员来华交流访问。截至2021年4月,中国先后邀请宗教信仰自由特别报告员、任意拘留问题工作组、教育权特别报告员、酷刑问题特别报告员、粮食权特别报告员、消除对妇女歧视问题工作组、外债对人权影响问题独立专家、极端贫困与人权问题特别报告员、老年人权利问题独立专家等9个特别机制11次访华。中国认真对待人权理事会特别机制来函,在认真调查的基础上及时予以答复。
Since China recovered its legitimate seat in the UN in 1971, it has played an active role in international human rights issues. In 1982, China became an official member state of the UN Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) and has maintained this position ever since. Since the UNHRC was established in 2006, it has been elected a council member five times, and about 20 Chinese experts served on the UN’s multilateral human rights organizations and special commissions.

China maintains constructive contacts with the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), receiving eight visits by the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights to China, and inviting many of the OHCHR officials to visit China. By April 2021, China has invited 11 visits by nine UN representatives and groups:

•the UN Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief,

•the UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention,

•the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to education,

•the UN Special Rapporteur on Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment,

•the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to food,

•the UN Working Group on discrimination against women and girls,

•the UN Independent Expert on foreign debt,

•the UN Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights, and

•the UN Independent Expert on the enjoyment of all human rights by older persons.

China handles letters from the Special Procedures of the UNHRC with due attention, carrying out any necessary investigations and giving timely replies.


中国参与制定国际人权规范,参加了《禁止酷刑和其他残忍、不人道或有辱人格的待遇或处罚公约》《儿童权利公约》《残疾人权利公约》《保护所有移徙工人及其家庭成员权利国际公约》,以及《经济、社会及文化权利国际公约》任择议定书等重要人权文件的制定工作组会议。中国作为主要推动者之一,参与了《发展权利宣言》起草工作。中国推动亚洲国家通过《曼谷宣言》,作为第二届世界人权大会副主席国参与起草《维也纳宣言和行动纲领》。中国积极参与劳工保护、人道主义、社会责任等领域国际规则制定。中国是《联合国气候变化框架公约》首批缔约方之一,全程参与并有效推动气候变化多边进程,为推动达成《巴黎协定》作出积极贡献。
China is a contributor to international human rights standards:

•It has attended the meetings of the drafting groups of the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, and the Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, along with other important documents on human rights protection.

•As one of the major initiators, it took part in the drafting of the Declaration on the Right to Development.

•It urged other Asian countries to adopt the Bangkok Declaration on human rights in 1993, and participated in drafting the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action at the Second World Conference on Human Rights.

•It actively participates in the formulation of international rules on labor protection, humanitarianism and social responsibility.

•As one of the first signatories to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, it participated in and effectively promoted the whole multilateral process of climate change issues, and made a positive contribution to the adoption of the Paris Agreement.

 

中国积极推动国际人权机构改革朝着更加公正合理包容方向发展。在设立联合国人权理事会过程中,中国主张会员国公平地域分配,提升发展中国家在人权理事会中的代表性;中国主张扭转将人权问题政治化的现状,不搞双重标准,减少和避免对抗,促进合作,推动人权理事会以公正客观、非选择性、普遍性等方式审议人权问题。中国支持联合国人权理事会设立安全饮用水、文化权、残疾人权利等专题性特别机制;倡导召开关于粮食安全、国际金融机制等议题的特别会议,积极推动完善国际人权机制。中国支持对人权条约机构进行必要改革,促进条约机构依据条约授权履职并与缔约国在相互尊重的基础上开展对话与合作。
China supports the reform of international human rights organizations in a fair, rational and inclusive direction. In establishing the UNHRC, China advocated membership based on equitable geographical distribution, so as to increase the representation of developing countries. It proposes to reverse the present practice of politicizing human rights issues, do away with double standards, refrain from confrontation or minimize its impact, facilitate cooperation, and encourage the UNHRC to review human rights issues in a just, objective, non-selective and universal manner. China supports the UNHRC in establishing specialized mechanisms for securing safe drinking water, protecting cultural rights, and defending the rights of persons with disabilities. It advocates for special conferences on food security and global financial mechanisms, and promotes the international mechanisms for protecting human rights. China stands by the necessary reform of the human rights treaty bodies, seeing that they perform their duties within their mandate and engage in dialogue and cooperation with signatory states on the basis of mutual respect.


自1990年以来,中国与美国、澳大利亚、加拿大、英国、挪威、德国、荷兰、瑞士、新西兰以及欧盟等西方国家和国际组织进行人权对话和交流,与俄罗斯、埃及、南非、巴西、马来西亚、巴基斯坦、白俄罗斯、古巴以及非盟等发展中国家或国际组织开展人权磋商。中国人权研究会、中国人权发展基金会等社会组织积极参与联合国人权理事会会议和活动,组团赴亚洲、北美、南美、欧洲、大洋洲、非洲的数十个国家交流访问,并邀请多国人权领域的政府官员和专家学者访华,增进了理解与互信。中国通过“北京人权论坛”“南南人权论坛”“中欧人权研讨会”“中美司法与人权研讨会”等国际人权交流活动,拓展了国际人权交流合作,增进了在人权问题上与各国的相互了解。
Since 1990, China has held dialogues and discussions on human rights with Western countries and international organizations such as the US, Australia, Canada, the UK, Norway, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, New Zealand and the EU, and held consultations with developing countries and international organizations including Russia, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Malaysia, Pakistan, Belarus, Cuba, and the African Union. The China Society for Human Rights Studies, China Foundation for Human Rights Development and other human rights NGOs in China have taken an active part in the UNHRC conferences and activities, organized teams to visit dozens of countries in Asia, North America, South America, Europe, Oceania and Africa. They have also invited government officials, experts and academics on human rights from various countries to visit China to enhance mutual understanding and trust. Through a series of international mechanisms like the Beijing Forum on Human Rights, the South-South Human Rights Forum, the China-Europe Seminar on Human Rights, and the Sino-American Dialogue on the Rule of Law and Human Rights, China has expanded its exchanges and cooperation with other countries on human rights, leading to greater mutual understanding in this respect.

 

(三)推动构建人类命运共同体
3. Building a Global Community of Shared Future


共建“一带一路”倡议是推动构建人类命运共同体的重要实践平台。这一倡议秉持和遵循共商共建共享原则,坚持开放、绿色、廉洁理念,积极推动政策沟通、设施联通、贸易畅通、资金融通、民心相通,追求实现高标准、可持续、惠民生目标,是共同发展的倡议,也是保障人权的倡议。据世界银行研究报告,共建“一带一路”倡议将使相关国家760万人摆脱极端贫困、3200万人摆脱中度贫困,将使参与国贸易增长2.8%至9.7%、全球贸易增长1.7%至6.2%、全球收入增加0.7%至2.9%。“一带一路”既是和平之路、繁荣之路、开放之路、创新之路、文明之路,也是实现全人类共同发展的人权之路。
Belt and Road cooperation is a major platform for building a global community of shared future. Upholding the principle of extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits, and pursuing open, green and clean cooperation, the Belt and Road Initiative promotes policy, infrastructure, trade, financial and people-to-people connectivity and targets high-standard, sustainable and people-centered goals. It is an initiative for common development and also for protecting human rights. According to a World Bank study[ The World Bank, Belt and Road Economics: Opportunities and Risks of Transport Corridors, 2019. ], the initiative could help lift 7.6 million people out of extreme poverty and 32 million people out of moderate poverty. It could boost trade by 2.8 to 9.7 percent for the corridor economies, and by 1.7 to 6.2 percent for the world. Global real income could increase by 0.7 to 2.9 percent. In addition to a path towards peace, prosperity, opening up, innovation, and cultural exchanges, the Belt and Road is also a route to common development and full human rights for the whole of humanity.


中国努力推动构建公平合理、合作共赢的全球环境治理体系,共同构建人与自然生命共同体。中国建立中欧环境与气候高层对话机制,并继续开展应对气候变化南南合作,启动中非环境合作中心,积极推动“2020年后全球生物多样性框架”进程。中国将生态文明领域合作作为共建“一带一路”重点内容,发起系列绿色行动倡议,采取绿色基建、绿色能源、绿色交通、绿色金融等一系列举措,持续造福参与共建“一带一路”的各国人民。中国已提出力争2030年前实现碳达峰,努力争取2060年前实现碳中和,这是中国基于推动构建人类命运共同体的责任担当和实现可持续发展的内在要求作出的重大战略决策。
China is also striving to create a just and rational global environmental governance system driven by cooperation and mutual benefit, and eventually to build a community of harmony between humanity and nature. China has established the China-EU High-Level Environment and Climate Dialogue, and continued south-south cooperation on climate change. It inaugurated the China-Africa Environmental Cooperation Center, and promoted the adoption of the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework. Taking eco-environmental cooperation as a major element of Belt and Road cooperation, it has launched a series of green action initiatives, and adopted such measures as green infrastructure construction, green energy, green transport and green finance, so as to deliver solid benefits to all peoples of the countries participating in the Belt and Road. China has announced that it will try to make its carbon dioxide emissions peak before 2030 and will strive to achieve carbon neutrality before 2060. This strategic policy decision is based on its commitment to help build a global community of shared future and its internal need for sustainable development.


中国积极推动构建人类卫生健康共同体。中国积极通过援建医院、提供药品和医疗设备、派遣医疗队、培训医疗人员、与发展中国家共同开展疾病防治交流合作等形式,支持受援国进一步改善医疗卫生条件,提高疾病防控水平,加强公共卫生能力建设。截至2021年4月,中国已累计派遣医疗队员2.7万人次,诊治患者2.8亿人次。新冠肺炎疫情发生以来,中国坚持同国际社会加强交流合作,并力所能及地为国际组织和其他国家提供援助和支持,为全球抗疫贡献中国智慧、中国力量。习近平主席亲自推动开展国际合作,呼吁各国团结合作战胜疫情,共同构建人类卫生健康共同体。截至2021年4月,中国已向世界卫生组织提供5000万美元现汇援助,向34个国家派出37支医疗专家组,已经或正在向151个国家和14个国际组织提供抗疫援助,并向联合国新冠肺炎疫情全球人道应对计划提供支持,有力支持了国际社会疫情防控。与此同时,中国积极开展国际科研交流合作,加强同世界卫生组织沟通交流,同有关国家在溯源、药物、疫苗、检测等方面开展科研交流与合作,共享科研数据信息,共同研究防控和救治策略。
China has engaged itself actively in building a global community of health for all. By building hospitals, offering medicine and medical equipment, dispatching medical teams, training local healthcare workers, and carrying out exchanges and cooperation on disease prevention and control, it has helped recipient developing countries further improve their medical and healthcare provision, raise the standards of their disease prevention and control, and strengthen their capabilities in public health. By April 2021, it had dispatched 27,000 medical workers on aid missions abroad, who have treated 280 million patients.

China has been carrying out exchanges and cooperation with the international community since the onset of the Covid-19 epidemic. It has done all it can to provide assistance and support to international organizations and other countries, contributing ingenuity and strength to the global battle against the coronavirus. President Xi Jinping acted in person to promote international cooperation, calling for solidarity from all countries in the battle, and joint efforts in building a global community of health for all. By April 2021, China had donated USD50 million in cash to the World Health Organization (WHO), and sent 37 medical expert teams to 34 countries. It has already provided or is offering assistance to 151 countries and 14 international organizations, and has contributed to the UN Covid-19 Global Humanitarian Response Plan. All these efforts support international epidemic prevention and control. At the same time, China has strengthened communication and exchanges with the WHO, conducted exchanges and cooperation with other countries on research in virus traceability, medicines, vaccines, and testing, shared scientific research data and information, and jointly studied prevention, control and treatment strategies.

 

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