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追小偷致其受伤反被起诉?正当防卫新规来了

中国日报网 2020-09-07 11:28

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最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部近日联合发布《关于依法适用正当防卫制度的指导意见》,对依法准确适用正当防卫制度作出较为全面系统的规定。

 

The premise of justifiable defense is the existence of unlawful infringement, which includes not only infringement on the right to life and health, but also the violation of personal freedoms, public and private property, among other rights, according to the guideline.
指导意见明确,正当防卫的前提是存在不法侵害。不法侵害既包括侵犯生命、健康权利的行为,也包括侵犯人身自由、公私财产等权利的行为。

【知识点】

正当防卫(justifiable defense),指对正在进行不法侵害行为的人采取的制止不法侵害的行为,对不法侵害人造成一定限度损害的,属于正当防卫,不负刑事责任。

我国《刑法》第二十条对正当防卫的规定是:

为了使国家、公共利益、本人或者他人的人身、财产和其他权利免受正在进行的不法侵害,而采取的制止不法侵害的行为,对不法侵害人造成损害的,属于正当防卫,不负刑事责任。
If a person employs an act to stop an unlawful infringement for the purposes of avoiding the said infringement for the State's or the public interest or for his own or another person's right of the person, property right or any other right, thus causing harm to the unlawful infringer, the said act shall be regarded as a justifiable defense and the said person shall not bear criminal responsibility.

正当防卫明显超过必要限度造成重大损害的,应当负刑事责任,但是应当减轻或者免除处罚。
If a justifiable defense apparently exceeds the limits of necessity, thus causing a serious harm, the person involved shall bear criminal responsibility, but be given a mitigated punishment or be exempt from punishment.

对正在进行行凶、杀人、抢劫、强奸、绑架以及其他严重危及人身安全的暴力犯罪,采取防卫行为,造成不法侵害人伤亡的,不属于防卫过当,不负刑事责任。
If a person employs an act of defense to an immediate violent crime of committing physical assault, homicide, robbery, rape, kidnapping or any other crime seriously endangering the safety of another person, thus causing bodily injury or death to the unlawful infringer, the said act shall not be regarded as a defense that exceeds the limits of necessity, and the said person shall not bear criminal responsibility.

其中,“正当防卫明显超过必要限度造成重大损害的,应当负刑事责任”指的就是“防卫过当(excessive defense)”。


在正当防卫制度的具体适用上,指导意见还提出了 “十个准确”规则。例如,要准确把握正当防卫的起因条件(causal conditions for justifiable defense)、准确把握正当防卫的时间条件(timing of justifiable defense)、准确把握防卫过当的意图条件(intentions of excessive defense)、准确把握防卫过当的刑罚裁量(punishment for excessive defense)及特殊防卫的认定条件等。

If someone finds that others are causing damage to national or public security, efforts to stop them will also be regarded as self-defense. For example, passengers can stop people trying to grab steering wheels or attack bus drivers while vehicles are in motion, according to the guideline.
指导意见明确,阻止危害国家或公共安全的行为被视为正当防卫。比如,在行驶的车辆上,乘客对于正在进行的拉拽方向盘、殴打司机等行为,可以实行防卫。

In addition, when a person is attacked by a group of people, he or she can fight back not only against the attackers as self-defense, but also those organizing or instigating the attack at the scene, it added.
对于多人共同实施不法侵害的,既可以针对直接实施不法侵害的人进行防卫,也可以针对在现场共同实施不法侵害的人进行防卫。


【相关词汇】

正当防卫 justifiable defense

紧急避险 emergency measures

公共秩序 public order

社会治安 social security

以危险方法危害公共安全罪 crime of endangering public security with dangerous method

 

参考来源:新华网、新京报

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