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新华网 2016-01-27 10:24


《中国的核应急》白皮书(刘健 摄)




China's Nuclear Emergency Preparedness




The State Council Information Office of

the People's Republic of China

January 2016














I. Current Situation of Nuclear Energy Development and Nuclear Emergency Preparedness

II. Guidelines and Policies for Nuclear Emergency Preparedness

III. All-round Promotion of Nuclear Emergency Preparedness

IV. Building and Maintenance of Nuclear Emergency Capabilities

V. Main Measures to Cope with Nuclear Accidents

VI. Nuclear Emergency Preparedness Exercises, Drills, Training and Public Communication

VII. Scientific and Technological Innovations in Nuclear Emergency Preparedness

VIII. International Cooperation and Exchanges in the Field of Nuclear Emergency Preparedness




The discovery of the atom and the subsequent development and utilization of nuclear energy gave a new impetus to the progress of humanity and greatly enhanced mankind's ability to understand and shape the world. Yet, the development of nuclear energy has associated risks and challenges. For mankind to better utilize nuclear energy and achieve even greater progress, it is necessary to make innovations in nuclear technologies, ensure nuclear safety and do well in nuclear emergency preparedness. While nuclear safety constitutes a lifeline for the sustained and healthy development of nuclear energy, nuclear emergency preparedness serves as an important safeguard for its sustained and healthy development.

Nuclear emergency preparedness denotes the emergency actions taken to control, contain and mitigate a nuclear accident, and to minimize the consequences of such accidents, which are different from the normal order and working procedure. They are emergency response actions guided by the government, assisted by the relevant enterprises, coordinated among all the involved parties and implemented in a unified manner. Nuclear emergency preparedness is of paramount importance and bears on the overall situation, and is therefore of critical significance to the protection of the general public, the environment and social stability as well as safeguarding national security.

China has consistently given top priority to nuclear safety in its peaceful use of nuclear energy, and has persisted in an overall national security concept by advocating a rational, coordinated and balanced nuclear safety outlook. China has followed the approach of enhancing safety for the sake of development and promoting development by upholding safety in an unrelenting effort to bring the dual goals of development and safety in alignment with each other. In the past six decades or so, the Chinese people have been working with stamina and diligence in the pursuit of nuclear energy utilization, with splendid achievements. At the same time, the Chinese people have been sparing no effort to improve nuclear safety techniques, enforce rigorous nuclear safety supervision, strengthen nuclear emergency management and ensure that nuclear energy has always maintained a sound safety record.

Nuclear accidents know no national boundaries, and everything related to nuclear emergency management is too important to be taken lightly. Drawing on the lessons learned from the Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents, China has come to a profound understanding of the utmost importance of nuclear emergencies, and the need to continuously strengthen and improve nuclear emergency preparedness and responses with a view to constantly enhancing the nuclear safety safeguard level. China has made great strides in a full range of nuclear emergency-related activities, including the enactment of regulations, codes and standards, the establishment of institutional and regulatory regimes, the building-up of basic capabilities, the fostering of professional personnel, related exercises and drills, public communication, and international cooperation and exchanges. This has not only provided a robust safeguard for China's own nuclear energy development, but also contributed actively to the promotion of a fair, open, collaborative and mutually beneficial international nuclear safety emergency framework and mankind's sharing of nuclear energy development achievements.

I. Current Situation of Nuclear Energy Development and Nuclear Emergency Preparedness

It was in the mid-1950s that China embarked on its nuclear industry. Over the past more than six decades China has made constant endeavors in the peaceful use of nuclear energy by promoting the extensive application of nuclear technologies to such areas as industry, agriculture, medicine, the environment and energy. In particular, since the introduction of the reform and opening-up policies in late 1978 China's nuclear energy sector has seen particularly rapid development.

The development of nuclear power constitutes an important component of China's nuclear energy sector. Nuclear power is a clean, efficient and quality modern energy source. China has consistently adhered to the principle of placing equal emphasis on development and safety, and implemented the policy of developing nuclear power in a safe and efficient manner by adopting the most advanced technology and most stringent standards. In March 1985 construction started on the Qinshan Nuclear Power Station, the first of its kind in the mainland of China. As of the end of October 2015, in the mainland of China 27 nuclear generating units had been in operation, with a total installed capacity of 25.50 GWe, and another 25 nuclear generating units with a total installed capacity of 27.51 GWe had been under construction. China has already developed its large-sized advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) and High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) technologies with proprietary intellectual property rights. Construction of the HPR1000 technology pilot project has already commenced. The China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) has achieved full power operation over 72 hours, signifying that China has already mastered the core technology associated with fast reactors.

With the development of the nuclear energy sector, nuclear safety and nuclear emergency work have seen steady synchronous reinforcement. China's nuclear facilities and nuclear activities have all along been in safe and stable state and, in particular, the safety level of nuclear power stations has witnessed constant improvement. None of the nuclear power generating units in China's mainland has suffered events or accidents rated above Level 2 under the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES), with the release of gaseous and liquid effluents kept far below the national regulatory limits. All of the under-construction nuclear power generating units have intact quality assurance, safety supervision and emergency preparedness systems.

China has always attached great importance to nuclear emergency work by taking a highly responsible attitude toward the safety of the people and society as a whole in enforcing nuclear emergency management. Arrangements have been made for nuclear emergency work in tandem with the decision taken to proceed with nuclear power development. In the wake of the Chernobyl accident, China made it clear that there would be no change in its nuclear power development policy, while stressing that a good job would be done on nuclear emergency preparedness ― with the result that national nuclear emergency work got off the ground in 1986. In 1991 the National Nuclear Accident Emergency Committee was inaugurated and commissioned to make overall planning and coordinate nuclear accident emergency preparations and rescue work nationwide. In 1993 China promulgated the Regulations on Emergency Measures for Nuclear Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants to formalize nuclear emergency by regulatory means. In 1997 the first National Nuclear Emergency Plan (Scenario) was issued to lay out arrangements for nuclear emergency preparations and response in the form of a governmental decision. To cater to the needs of nuclear power development, multiple revisions have since been made to the original Plan and the latest version of National Nuclear Emergency Plan has been enacted. At present, China's nuclear emergency management and preparations have seen comprehensive upgrades in terms of system, specialization, standards and scientific rigor.

Under China's medium- and long-term development objectives, by 2020 the in-operation nuclear power installed capacity will reach 58 GWe in the mainland of China plus an additional 30 GWe approximately under construction. By 2030 endeavors will have been made to put into place science and technology R&D systems along with their associated industrial systems representing the global development trends of nuclear power, and to ensure that nuclear power technologies and equipment will take up a substantial share in the international market, thereby meeting the target of building a strong nuclear power country. Faced with the new situation, new challenges and new requirements, China is still confronted with shortfalls in nuclear emergency work in terms of technology, equipment, needed professionals, capacity and standards, which are the same problems encountered by other countries in developing nuclear energy. China will seek to reinforce national nuclear emergency management and raise its nuclear emergency work to a new level through idea innovation, scientific and technological innovation, and management innovation.

II. Guidelines and Policies for Nuclear Emergency Preparedness

As a large developing country, China has laid down basic guidelines and policies applicable to nuclear emergency preparedness through enactment of laws, administrative regulations and issuance of government decrees in the course of nuclear energy development.

The basic objectives of nuclear emergency preparedness in China are: scientific coordination according to law, timely and effectively coping with nuclear accidents, maximally controlling/mitigating or eliminating accidents, minimizing human casualties/fatalities and property damages, protecting the public and the environment, maintaining social order and safeguarding the people's safety and national security.

The basic policy of nuclear emergency management in China is: constant vigilance, versatile compatibility, unified command, active coordination, public safeguard and environmental protection.

― Constant vigilance, versatile compatibility. Nuclear emergency organizations at all levels should stay alert and vigilant at all times in readiness to respond to possible nuclear accidents at any time. A nuclear emergency preparation and response system featuring coordination of dedicated and standby systems, rational deployment of resources, combination of routine exercises and actual emergency response, and integration of civilian and military resources is to be established and perfected. Nuclear emergency work must be planned and deployed in an overall manner together with other activities and implemented compatibly with them.

― Unified command, active coordination. Operators of nuclear installations shall coordinate and direct on-site nuclear accident emergency response actions in a unified manner, and governments at all levels shall coordinate and direct nuclear accident emergency response actions within their respective jurisdictions in a unified manner. Under the unified organization and direction of the government, nuclear emergency organizations, relevant departments, relevant enterprises, professional teams, social organizations and military rescue units shall work in coordination with one another in a joint effort to complete nuclear accident emergency response actions.

― Public safeguard and environmental protection. Public safeguard constitutes the fundamental objective of nuclear emergency preparedness, and it is incumbent upon us to take the attitude and actions that everything is for the people in coping with nuclear accidents. Environmental protection should be viewed as the fundamental requirement of nuclear emergency preparedness in such a way that every effort is made to minimize the release of radioactive substances and do our best to control, mitigate and eliminate damages to the environment.

The basic principles underlying nuclear emergency preparedness in China are: unified leadership, different levels of responsibility, tiered arrangements, coordination between the locality and the military, quick response, and scientific handling.

― Unified leadership, different levels of responsibility. Under the unified leadership of the central government, China has established a nuclear emergency management system featuring assignment of responsibility to different levels. The operator of the relevant nuclear installation is the major body of accountability for on-site emergency work. The people's government at the provincial level is the major body of accountability for off-site emergency activities in its jurisdiction.

― Tiered arrangements, coordination between the locality and the military. Nuclear emergency involves the central and the local, the military and the government, on-site and off-site, specialized techniques and social administration. Therefore, it is necessary to uphold the principles of uniform deployment and centralized planning, mutual support, mutual coordination, and comprehensive rescue at all times.

― Quick response, scientific handling. When a nuclear accident occurs, all levels of nuclear emergency organizations shall be mobilized at the earliest possible time to rapidly control and mitigate the accident to minimize any impact on the public and the environment. Every effort shall be made to take into account the characteristics and rules applicable to nuclear accidents as the basis for organizing studies and evaluations to enable scientific decision-making, and enforce a full range of response actions in an effective manner, including radiation monitoring, worksite rescue, decontamination and cleansing, radiation protection and medical treatment, and so forth.

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