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李克强总理记者会文字实录(双语全文)

新华网 2020-06-01 15:07

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十三届全国人大三次会议5月28日下午在人民大会堂举行记者会,国务院总理李克强应大会发言人张业遂的邀请出席记者会,并回答中外记者提问。

The Third Session of the 13th National People’s Congress held a press conference at the Great Hall of the People on the afternoon of May 28, 2020. Premier Li Keqiang met with Chinese and foreign reporters and answered their questions at the invitation of Spokesperson Mr. Zhang Yesui.

 

记者会开始时,李克强说,首先感谢媒体朋友们在特殊时期克服了特殊困难,对中国两会进行报道。因为疫情原因,我们用视频连线形式开记者会,我想这个距离不会影响我们之间的沟通。时间有限,请大家提问。

In his opening remarks, Premier Li Keqiang thanked the journalists for covering China’s NPC and CPPCC Sessions at an unusual time and despite unusual circumstances. He noted that although the containment protocols require that the press conference be held via a video link, such distance would not impede their communication. In the interest of time, he went straight to questions.

 

路透社记者:新冠肺炎疫情对世界各国的经济都造成了严重的影响,不少国家的政府出台了数万亿美元的财政和货币措施,来应对新冠肺炎疫情对经济产生的冲击。今年中国政府工作报告中没有设定GDP增速。根据路透社的测算,政府工作报告中出台的财政措施约占中国2019年国内生产总值的4%,这个规模比一些经济学家的预期要低,今年一季度中国经济首次出现了几十年以来的收缩。未来几个月,中方是否会出台更大规模的刺激措施?从更长远看,中方是否有足够的政策工具来应对全球疫情持续蔓延和不断紧张的中美关系?

Reuters: The new coronavirus outbreak has devastated economies around the world. Trillions of dollars in fiscal and monetary measures have been pushed out to deal with the fallout. In this year’s Government Work Report, China did not set a GDP growth target. But it did announce fiscal measures worth about 4% of China’s GDP in 2019 according to our calculations. That’s slightly less than some economists expected after seeing China’s economy contract for the first time in decades in the first quarter. So my question is: can we expect China to deliver more ambitious stimulus in the months to come? Does China have sufficient policy options to deal with a prolonged global pandemic and rising tensions with the United States?

 

李克强:这次新冠肺炎疫情给世界经济造成了严重冲击,可以说是史上罕见。最近不少主要国际组织都预测,今年全球经济增长是负3%,甚至更多。中国经济已经深度融入世界经济,不可能置身事外。所以今年我们没有确定GDP增长的量化指标,这也是实事求是的。但是我们确定了保居民就业、保基本民生、保市场主体等“六保”的目标任务,这和经济增长有直接关系。经济增长不是不重要,我们这样做实际上也是让人民群众对经济增长有更直接的感受,使经济增长有更高的质量。发展是解决中国一切问题的关键和基础。如果统算一下,实现了“六保”,特别是前“三保”,我们就会实现今年中国经济正增长,而且要力争有一定的幅度,推动中国经济稳定前行。

Premier Li: The novel coronavirus disease has taken a heavy toll on the global economy in a way rarely seen before. Major international institutions have projected a negative 3 percent global growth or worse this year. As China’s economy has become deeply integrated into the global economy, it is simply impossible for the Chinese economy to stay immune to such impacts. This year we decided not to set a specific growth target. This is a decision informed by the realities on the ground. In the meantime, we have formulated a series of goals and tasks in six key areas which are closely connected with economic development, with a particular focus on protecting employment, people’s basic living needs, and market entities.

Not setting a specific GDP growth target does not mean that economic development is not important. Our decision is designed for economic growth to deliver more real gains to our people and promote higher quality development in China. We believe that development still holds the key and is the foundation for resolving all the problems in China today. Putting protections in place in six key areas, especially in the areas of jobs, livelihoods and businesses, will help us achieve positive and solid growth this year to the extent possible, and maintain steady economic development.

 

你刚才说到有反映我们出台的政策规模低于预期,但是我也听到很多方面反映,认为我们出台的规模性政策还是有力度的。应对这场冲击,我们既要把握力度,还要把握时机。在新冠肺炎疫情蔓延的时候,我们也出台了一些政策,但是当时复工复产还在推进中,复业复市受阻,一些政策不可能完全落地,很多人都待在家里。在这个过程中,我们也积累了经验。正是根据前期的经验和对当前形势的判断,我们在政府工作报告中推出的规模性政策举措,应该说是有力度的。

In your questions, you said our measures are seen by some as below expectations. What I heard from many quarters is that our measures are forceful. For any response to work, we must get both the timing and intensity right. When COVID-19 was still raging, some policies were introduced. But with the economy barely reopened, the situation then made it difficult for these polices to get truly delivered on the ground, as most of the people still had to stay indoors. This has been a process of gaining experience. Based on the experience in the past weeks and months and our assessment of the current situation, we have decided on new policy steps of a sizable scale as set out in the Government Work Report, and we believe these measures are forceful.

 

过去我们说不搞“大水漫灌”,现在还是这样,但是特殊时期要有特殊政策,我们叫作“放水养鱼”。没有足够的水,鱼是活不了的。但是如果泛滥了,就会形成泡沫,就会有人从中套利,鱼也养不成,还会有人浑水摸鱼。所以我们采取的措施要有针对性,也就是说要摸准脉、下准药。钱从哪里来、用到哪里去,都要走新路。

We have repeatedly said that we will not flood China’s economy with liquidity. We didn’t do it in the past; we will not do it now. But the current unusual time requires extraordinary measures. Just as water is important to fish farming, sufficient liquidity is important to economic development. But too much water will induce froth in the fishpond, whereby some people may attempt to muddy the waters and fish for arbitrage. We must ensure that measures taken are well-focused, the prescription is precise and the medicines for getting out of the hardship effective. New approaches must be employed as to where the money comes from and how it is spent.

 

这次规模性政策筹措的资金分两大块:一块是新增财政赤字和发行抗疫特别国债,共两万亿元。还有另外更大的一块,就是减免社保费,有的国家叫工薪税,并动用失业保险结存,推动国有商业银行让利、自然垄断性企业降价以降低企业的经营成本。这一块加起来大概是前一块的两倍。我们是要将这些资金用于保就业、保民生和保市场主体,支撑居民的收入。这些资金和我们现在全部居民收入40多万亿元的总盘子相比,比例达两位数。

The financing raised through policies of a sizable scale can be grouped into mainly two categories. The first covers the increase of fiscal deficits and issuance of government bonds for COVID-19 control. Together it amounts to 2 trillion RMB yuan. The other category, which is roughly twice as big, covers payment relief for enterprises of their contributions to social security schemes, also known as payroll tax in some other countries, and taps into the balance of the unemployment insurance fund, interest concessions made by state-owned commercial banks, and price reductions in natural monopoly industries to lower enterprises’ operating costs. This money will be primarily used to support jobs, people’s basic living needs and businesses, and sustain household income. It accounts for a double-digit share in the more than 40 trillion RMB yuan of total household income in China.

 

更重要的是钱往哪里去?我们这次为企业纾困和激发市场活力的规模性政策,主要是用来稳就业、保民生,使居民有消费能力,这有利于促消费、拉动市场,可以说是一条市场化改革的路子。

What’s more important is how the money is spent. Our measures of a sizable scale are designed to provide vital relief to businesses and revitalize the market. With a particular focus on supporting jobs and people’s livelihoods, our people will have money to spend and consumption will drive market vitality. This is in keeping with market-oriented reform.

 

钱是可以生钱的,用之于民的钱可以创造新的财富,涵养税源,使财政可持续。我们一定要稳住当前的经济,稳定前行,但也要避免起重脚,扬起尘土迷了后人的路。如果经济方面或其他方面再出现大的变化,我们还留有政策空间,不管是财政、金融、社保都有政策储备,可以及时出台新的政策,而且不会犹豫。保持中国经济稳定运行至关重要。

Money well-spent can create new money. Money invested in the people will generate new wealth, help us protect and preserve the tax base and make public finance more sustainable. We will do our utmost to keep China’s economic growth stable and make steady progress. In other words, we will not kick up dirt and leave a trail of dust that will block the sight of those who follow. We have also reserved policy space on the fiscal, financial, social security and other fronts. And we are in a strong position to quickly introduce new measures without any hesitation should the evolving situation calls for it. It is essential that we keep China’s economic growth on a steady course.

 

我们坚信,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,经过全国人民的共同努力,一定会战胜当前的困难,实现全年目标任务,全面建成小康社会。中国经济保持稳定、稳住基本盘,本身就是对世界的贡献,会为世界经济恢复增长、实现发展作出积极贡献。

I am confident that under the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core and with joint efforts of people across the nation, we will be able to prevail over the current difficulties, fulfill our tasks and goals for the whole year, and complete the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects. Keeping China’s economic growth and fundamentals stable will be a contribution to the whole world. And China will remain a positive force driving global economic recovery and growth.

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