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2021年9月新闻热词汇总

中国日报网 2021-10-01 11:00

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神舟十二号载人飞船 Shenzhou XII mission

在天空工作、生活90天后,三位航天员今天安全回家了。

 

The reentry capsule of the Shenzhou XII mission, with mission commander Major General Nie Haisheng, Major General Liu Boming and Senior Colonel Tang Hongbo inside, touched down at 1:34 pm at the Dongfeng Landing Site in the Badain Jaran Desert.
2021年9月17日13点34分,神舟十二号载人飞船返回舱载着航天员聂海胜、刘伯明、汤洪波在巴丹吉林沙漠东风着陆场着陆。

三位航天员身体状态良好,空间站阶段首次载人飞行任务取得圆满成功。


The Shenzhou XII spacecraft departed China's Tiangong space station on Thursday morning, carrying three Chinese astronauts on a journey back to Earth, the China Manned Space Agency said. It said in a brief statement that the spacecraft left the station's Tianhe core module at 8:56 am.
据中国载人航天工程办公室消息,北京时间2021年9月16日8时56分,神舟十二号载人飞船与空间站天和核心舱成功实施分离,带着三位航天员踏上返程之旅。


【知识点】

2021年6月17日9时22分,搭载神舟十二号载人飞船(the Shenzhou XII spacecraft)的长征二号F遥十二运载火箭,在酒泉卫星发射中心点火发射。三名航天员乘坐神舟十二号载人飞船到达我国空间站核心舱(core module of China's space station)。神舟十二号载人飞船是我国第七次载人飞船任务(the seventh manned spaceflight)。

在英文报道中,无人航空飞行器、卫星、火箭等(unmanned space vessels, satellites, rockets)的编号一般用阿拉伯数字,而载人飞行器(manned spacecraft)的编号一般用罗马数字,比如,“嫦娥五号”的英文是Chang'e-5,而我国首个载人飞船“神舟五号”的英文是Shenzhou V。


中国载人航天工程办公室介绍,


Before their departure, the astronauts-mission commander Major General Nie Haisheng, Major General Liu Boming and Senior Colonel Tang Hongbo-configured the space station, transmitted some experimental data back to ground control and arranged materials inside the station, with assistance from ground support professionals.
分离前,航天员聂海胜、刘伯明、汤洪波在地面科技人员的配合下,完成了空间站组合体状态设置、实验数据整理下传、留轨物资清理转运等撤离前各项工作。


The Shenzhou XII spaceship completed circumnavigation and radial rendezvous tests at 1:38 pm (Beijing Time) Thursday. The tests successfully verified the radial rendezvous technology, laying an important technical foundation for the following manned missions.
神舟十二号载人飞船于北京时间2021年9月16日13时38分,与空间站组合体完成绕飞及径向交会试验,成功验证了径向交会技术,为后续载人飞行任务奠定了重要技术基础。

【知识点】

径向交会对接(radial rendezvous and docking)指载人飞船以垂直的方式,从下面和空间站组合体进行交会对接。神舟十三号就要以这种方式与空间站组合体进行交会对接,这项技术的难度非常大,到目前为止没有在太空当中验证过,所以神舟十二号在回家之前要对这项技术进行验证。


By Thursday morning, the crew had been in space for 90 days, almost two times longer than the Shenzhou XI mission, which saw Jing Haipeng and Chen Dong spend 33 days in orbit.
截至9月16日早晨,神舟十二号航天组在空间站生活了90天,几乎是神舟十一号任务在轨时间的三倍,当时航天员景海鹏和陈冬在轨生活了33天。

 


“一起向未来”!“Together for a Shared Future”!

在北京冬奥会开幕倒计时140天之际,北京冬奥会、冬残奥会主题口号正式对外发布——

“一起向未来”!

“Together for a Shared Future”!

 

这是中国向世界发出的诚挚邀约,传递出14亿中国人民的美好期待:在奥林匹克精神的感召下,与世界人民携手共进、守望相助、共创美好未来。

在全球应对新冠肺炎疫情的大背景下,北京冬奥会主题口号发出的声音是汇聚、是共享、是未来。

“一起(Together)”展现了人类在面对困境时的坚强姿态,指明了战胜困难、开创未来的成功之道。“向未来(for a Shared Future)”表达了人类对美好明天的憧憬,传递了信心和希望;

“一起向未来(Together for a Shared Future)”是态度、是倡议、更是行动方案,倡导追求团结、和平、进步、包容的共同目标,是更快、更高、更强、更团结奥林匹克精神的中国宣扬,表达了世界需要携手走向美好未来的共同愿望。

 

北京证券交易所 Beijing Stock Exchange

9月17日,北京证券交易所发布《北京证券交易所投资者适当性管理办法(试行)》。办法明确,北京证券交易所个人投资者准入的资金门槛为证券资产50万元,机构投资者准入不设置资金门槛。

Individual investors eligible for the new stock exchange in Beijing should have at least two years of experience in securities investment. Their average daily securities assets should be no less than 500,000 yuan in the 20 trading days before they are allowed to trade on the bourse, according to the regulation.
办法明确,个人投资者准入门槛为开通交易权限前20个交易日日均证券资产50万元,同时具备2年以上证券投资经验。

【词汇讲解】

这里的bourse其实就是stock exchange(证券交易所)的意思,只不过这个词在欧洲大陆(英国除外)更常用,比如:Euronext is an alliance between the Paris, Brussels, and Amsterdam bourses.(泛欧交易所是巴黎、布鲁塞尔和阿姆斯特丹交易所合并设立的。)


Along with the regulation, the Beijing Stock Exchange (BSE) has started guiding securities companies to improve related systems and procedures, and preparing investors for account opening, in a bid to deepen the reform of the New Third Board and ensure a sound opening of the bourse.
与规则发布同步,北京证券交易所已着手指导各证券公司制定完善适当性管理的制度流程,有序推进投资者预约开户,为深化新三板改革、北京证券交易所平稳开市创造良好条件。


Qualified investors can now make an appointment with brokerages to apply for BSE trading access.
符合条件的投资者可向其委托的证券公司申请预约开通北京证券交易所交易权限。


【背景知识】

近期,我国决定深化新三板改革(deepen the reform of the New Third Board),设立北京证券交易所(Beijing Stock Exchange),打造服务创新型中小企业主阵地(the primary platform serving innovation-oriented SMEs)。

新三板(the New Third Board),即“全国中小企业股份转让系统”(the National Equities Exchange and Quotations,NEEQ),是经国务院批准,依据证券法设立的继上交所、深交所之后第三家全国性证券交易场所,也是我国第一家公司制运营的证券交易场所。其市场定位是主要为创新型、创业型、成长型中小企业发展服务。

具有新三板创新层和基础层交易权限的投资者(investors with trading access to innovation layer and basic layer of the New Third Board),其交易权限范围将包含北京证券交易所股票。

 

2021年全球创新指数 Global Innovation Index (GII) 2021

9月20日,世界知识产权组织发布《2021年全球创新指数报告》。

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)'s "Global Innovation Index (GII) 2021" shows that China has made continuous progress from ranking 14th last year to 12th this year and is now "knocking at the door of the GII top 10," which "underlines the continued importance of governmental policies and incentives to stimulate innovation."
世界知识产权组织(WIPO)发布的《2021年全球创新指数报告》显示,2021年中国创新指数在全球排名第12位,较2020年上升2位,排名连续稳步上升。最新排名已接近进入前十名之列,彰显了政府决策和激励措施对于促进创新的重要性。

【知识点】

全球创新指数(Global Innovation Index)由世界知识产权组织(WIPO)自2007年开始发布,已经成为国际上关于创新和知识产权水平的权威报告。报告通过政策环境(institutions)、人力资本与研究(human capital and research)、基础设施(infrastructure)、市场成熟度(market sophistication)、商业成熟度(business sophistication)、知识与技术产出(knowledge and technology outputs)、创意产出(creative outputs)等七大类81项指标,对全球132个经济体的综合创新能力进行系统衡量。


Since 2013, China has moved up the GII ranks consistently and steadily, being the only middle-income economy in the list and establishing itself as a global innovation leader.
自2013年以来,中国的全球创新指数排名连续稳步上升,目前仍是前30名中唯一的中等收入经济体,已经确立了作为全球创新领先者之一的地位。


分项指标表现

The number of China's patents by origin, scaled by gross domestic product (GDP), is higher than those of Japan, Germany and the United States, and is even more impressive when considered in absolute terms. The same is true for the number of trademarks and industrial designs by origin as a percentage of GDP.
中国的本国人专利数量在国内生产总值中的规模高于日本、德国和美国。按绝对价值计算,表现还要更好。本国人商标和工业设计数量在国内生产总值中的占比表现也很亮眼。


In terms of innovation clusters geographically, the top 10 list remains the same as last year with only minor shifts. Shenzhen-Hong Kong-Guangzhou and Beijing now rank second and third, respectively, after the Tokyo-Yokohama cluster in Japan. Shanghai ranks eighth. Of the top 100 clusters, China has 19.
在全球“最佳科技集群”排名中,前十名的位次与去年相比,仅有微小变动。日本东京—横滨地区排名第一,中国深圳—香港—广州地区和北京分别位列第二、三位,上海排名第八。全球100个领先的科技集群,有19个在中国。


As in past years, Switzerland, Sweden, the United States and the United Kingdom continue to lead the innovation ranking. Other countries in the GII top 10 include South Korea, the Netherlands, Finland, Singapore, Denmark and Germany.
与往年一样,瑞士、瑞典、美国以及英国占据创新指数榜单前四位,位列前十的其他几个国家分别是韩国、荷兰、芬兰、新加坡、丹麦和德国。

 

中国农民丰收节 Chinese Farmers' Harvest Festival

9月23日是农历秋分,也是第四个“中国农民丰收节”。

 

A series of events ranging from art performances and farmers' sports meetings to calligraphy and painting exhibitions are being held across the country to mark the fourth Chinese Farmers' Harvest Festival on Thursday.
全国各地组织艺术表演、农民运动会以及书画展等一系列活动庆祝第四个“中国农民丰收节”。

【知识点】

经党中央批准、国务院批复,自2018年起我国将每年农历秋分设立为“中国农民丰收节”(Chinese Farmers' Harvest Festival),这是第一个专为农民设立的节日。

 

为何将“中国农民丰收节”设立在秋分(autumn equinox)?

从节气上看,春种秋收,春华秋实,秋分时节硕果累累,最能体现丰收(it's the best time to celebrate the harvest)。

从区域上看,我国地域辽阔、物产丰富,各地收获的时节有所不同,但多数地方都在秋季(Although climates and crops differ in various parts of China, most crops mature in autumn),秋收作物是大头。

从民俗上看,我们国家有十几个少数民族有庆祝丰收的传统节日(ethnic groups in China have their own festivals at harvest time),大多都在下半年。在国家层面设立一个各民族共同参与、共庆丰收的节日,有利于促进中华民族大家庭的和睦团结和发展(to enhance harmony and development of the Chinese nation)。


山西运城

The city government said its celebrations include a livestreaming session aimed at promoting local farm produce and an exhibition of fertilizers, high-yield seeds and other agricultural materials.
当地政府表示,今年的庆祝活动包括推广当地农产品的直播活动,以及肥料、高产良种和其他农资产品展览。


黑龙江黑河

The festivities were combined with local traditions of the ethnic Daur people-such as dancing around bonfires-in a bid to boost local tourism.
丰收节庆祝活动与当地达斡尔族传统活动结合,举办篝火晚会等活动,以促进当地旅游业发展。

今年秋粮丰收的基本面仍然较好

Figures from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs showed the autumn grain growing area is about 86 million hectares this year and is bracing for a bumper harvest.
农业农村部的数据显示,今年我国秋粮种植面积约为8600万公顷,将迎来丰收。


To ensure a bumper harvest, the central government allocated 20 billion yuan in subsidies to farmers amid a hike in the prices of seeds and fertilizers in spring.
为确保粮食丰收,中央政府划拨200亿元农业补贴帮助农民应对春季化肥和种子价格上涨。


Central and local authorities also spent 3 billion yuan on the control of wheat pests and diseases to secure grain production and managed to cap the damage rate below 5 percent.
中央和地方政府还划拨30亿元用于农作物病虫害防治,以保证粮食生产,并将农作物毁损率控制在5%以下。

【单词讲解】

Cap这个词大家都认识,本意是“帽子”,尤指那种带帽舌的帽子,比如baseball cap(棒球帽)。在这里,cap作为动词使用,表示“对...进行限制”,相当于set a limit on/put a ceiling/impose a cap on,比如,Their salary was capped at 10,000 yuan per month./The management team put a salary cap of 10,000 yuan on them.(他们的月薪不能超过1万元。)而且这里的限制一般都指“上限”,因为ceiling和cap都在我们的头顶,在某件事上加了个天花板或者帽子,其实就是相当于“给某事设了一个上限”。

 

In recent years, central authorities have also been ramping up construction of "high-standard farmland" for large mechanical farming.
近年来,中央政府部门还大力推进高标准农田建设,用于大规模机械化耕种。

Such grain growing areas had reached 53.3 million hectares as of last year and will surpass 80 million hectares by 2030. They will increase yields by 10 to 20 percent and cut costs by 7,500 yuan a hectare.
去年,高标准农田种植面积已经达到5330万公顷,到2030年将超过8000万公顷。此类农田每公顷产量将增加10%到20%、成本下降7500元。

 

新冠疫苗加强针 booster doses of COVID-19 vaccine

浙江、河南以及广东地区的卫生健康部门先后发布信息表示,将从本月起启动新冠疫苗加强针的接种。

Guangdong, Zhejiang and Henan provinces will start administering booster doses of vaccine to residents this month to strengthen their immunity to COVID-19 as sporadic outbreaks are reported in some parts of China. Those targeted for a third dose are people aged 18 to 59 who received two doses of inactivated coronavirus vaccine at least six months ago, authorities said.
近期,国内部分地区报告新冠肺炎散发病例,广东、浙江以及河南省将从本月起开始新冠疫苗加强针接种工作,以加强民众的免疫力。第三针接种将面向已完成两剂次灭活疫苗接种6个月以上的18-59岁人群。

【知识点】

所谓疫苗加强针(booster shot/booster dose),是指在完成疫苗接种后,根据抗体消退的情况进行补充接种,保持人体对病毒免疫力的疫苗剂次。这里的核心词booster,来源于动词boost,主要表示“加强、促进、推动”等意思,比如boost production(促生产),boost morale(提振士气)等,在这里表示“increase or renew the effect of the vaccine”,即“增强疫苗产生的效果”。

 

广东汕尾:六类重点人群可接种加强针

The city health commission in Shanwei, Guangdong province, said on Thursday that priority for the booster shot will be given to front-line personnel at medical institutions and workers in government departments, law enforcement, public services, customs, border ports, harbors, the cold-chain industry and those who want to study or work abroad.
广东省汕尾市卫健部门9月23日表示,将面向一线医疗卫生人员,政府机关、执法部门、公共服务、海关、口岸、冷链等行业工作人员,以及出国工作学习人员等重点人群开展加强针接种。


加强针效果如何?

Research has shown that a person's antibody level will be increased more than tenfold if a third dose of vaccine is given more than six months after the second, and that immunity will be maintained at a relatively high level for another six months.
研究发现,接种疫苗第二剂后6个月再接种一剂,抗体水平增幅达到十多倍。 接种后,再过6个月还能维持在比较高的水平。

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