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解惑:什么食物才算是三明治? 4 ways to define a sandwich, according to the law

中国日报网 2021-11-08 09:00

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三明治到底是什么?有人认为两片面包夹个东西就是三明治,那么热狗算不算三明治?事实上,美国不同部门对于三明治有着不同的定义,今天我们就来看看什么食物才称得上三明治。

 

[Photo/Pexels]

 

1. CALIFORNIA: HOT DOGS ARE SANDWICHES

美国加州:热狗也是三明治

 

Despite fitting the description of a food product served on a bread-like product, many sandwich purists insist that hot dogs deserve their own category. California joins Merriam-Webster in declaring that a hot dog is a sandwich, nonetheless. The bold word choice appears in the state’s tax law, which mentions “hot dog and hamburger sandwiches” served from “sandwich stands or booths.” Applying the sandwich label to burgers is less controversial, but it’s still worth debating.

尽管热狗也是两片面包夹个东西,但是许多三明治纯粹主义者坚称热狗应该自成一类。不过,加州政府和韦氏词典一样,都认为热狗也是三明治。加州税法中提到“三明治小摊上的热狗和汉堡包三明治”。把汉堡包也称为三明治虽然争议没那么大,但是也值得商榷。

 

 

2. MASSACHUSETTS COURT: A BURRITO IS NOT A SANDWICH

马萨诸塞州法院:玉米卷饼不是三明治

 

Justice Jeffrey A. Locke from the Worcester County Superior Court said in 2006 that “The New Webster Third International Dictionary describes a ‘sandwich’ as ‘two thin pieces of bread, usually buttered, with a thin layer (as of meat, cheese, or savory mixture) spread between them.’”

2006年,伍斯特县高等法院法官杰弗里·A·洛克曾说过:“《韦氏第三版新国际英语词典》对三明治的定义是:两片薄面包,通常抹了黄油,中间平铺了一层薄馅儿(肉、奶酪或调味酱)。”

 

He said: “Under this definition and as dictated by common sense, this court finds that the term ‘sandwich’ is not commonly understood to include burritos, tacos, and quesadillas.”

他指出:“根据这一定义和常识,法院裁定三明治不应包括墨西哥玉米卷饼、墨西哥夹饼和墨西哥薄饼。”

 

 

3. USDA: A SANDWICH IS MEAT BETWEEN TWO SLICES OF BREAD

美国农业部:三明治就是两片面包夹肉

 

“A sandwich is a meat or poultry filling between two slices of bread, a bun, or a biscuit,” Mark Wheeler, who works in food and safety at the US Department of Agriculture, told NPR. His definition comes from the Food Standards and Labeling Policy Book used by the department (the USDA only covers the “labeling of meat, poultry, and egg products,” while the FDA handles everything else, which is why the USDA's definition excludes things like grilled cheese). Not included under their umbrella of foodstuff served between bread are burritos, wraps, and hot dogs.

美国农业部食品安全部门的马克·惠勒告诉美国国家公共电台说:“三明治就是两片面包、一个小圆面包或一张饼夹着猪牛羊肉或家禽肉馅料。”他给的定义来自农业部使用的《食品标准与标签政策》。农业部只负责“给猪牛羊肉、家禽肉和蛋制品贴标签”,而美国食品药品监督管理局负责给所有其他食品贴标签,这就是为什么农业部定义的三明治所夹东西不包含烤奶酪等食物。根据农业部的定义,墨西哥玉米卷饼、薄卷饼和热狗都不属于三明治的范畴。

 

 

4. NEW YORK: IF IT’S SERVED ON SOMETHING REMOTELY BREAD-LIKE, IT’S A SANDWICH

纽约:只要是用面包之类的东西夹着,就是三明治

 

When it comes to sandwiches, New York doesn’t discriminate. In a bulletin outlining the state’s tax policy, a description of what constitutes a sandwich warrants its own subhead. The article reads: "Sandwiches include cold and hot sandwiches of every kind that are prepared and ready to be eaten, whether made on bread, on bagels, on rolls, in pitas, in wraps, or otherwise, and regardless of the filling or number of layers. A sandwich can be as simple as a buttered bagel or roll, or as elaborate as a six-foot, toasted submarine sandwich.”

在三明治的定义上,纽约政府一视同仁。在一则关于纽约州税收政策的公告中,有一段话专门讲到什么才算是三明治:“三明治包括各种即食的冷热三明治,无论是用面包、百吉饼、卷饼、皮塔饼、薄卷饼还是用其他东西夹,也不管夹着什么馅料或夹多少层馅料。三明治可以是简单的抹了黄油的百吉饼或卷饼,也可以是精心制作的高达6英尺的烤潜艇三明治。”

 

It then moves on to examples of taxable sandwiches. The list includes items widely believed to bear the label, like Reubens, paninis, club sandwiches, and peanut butter and jelly sandwiches. Other entries, like burritos, gyros, open-faced sandwiches, and hot dogs, may cause confusion among diners.

这则公告还列举了应纳税的三明治,其中既包括一些被普遍认为是三明治的食物,比如鲁宾三明治、帕尼尼、俱乐部三明治、花生酱和果冻三明治,也包括一些如果被叫成三明治会让食客困惑的食物,比如墨西哥玉米卷饼、皮塔三明治(希腊烤肉卷饼)、开放式三明治和热狗。

 

英文来源:Mental Floss

翻译&编辑:丹妮

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