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4月新闻热词汇总

中国日报网 2018-05-01 10:16

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4月,博鳌亚洲论坛2018年年会在海南博鳌举行,习近平主席出席开幕式并发表主旨演讲,在演讲中,习近平主席宣布,中国决定在扩大开放方面采取一系列新的重大举措。中美商务部继续公布针对对方的征税清单;多个城市公布吸引人才优惠政策,上演“人才争夺战”;北京市积分洛书申报工作正式启动;我国发布支持海南全面深化改革开放的指导意见,随后,海南宣布实行全域限购,遏制房地产炒作;习近平主席在南海海域检阅海军部队;我国空军在训练期间组织进行绕岛巡航;习近平主席视察长江三角洲并与印度总理莫迪进行非正式会晤;“隐形贫困人口”走红网络。

4月新闻热词汇总

长江考察 trip along the Yangtze River

24日上午,习近平总书记从北京直飞湖北宜昌。一下飞机便前往长江沿岸考察调研长江生态环境修复工作,走进化工厂、访问移民村、考察三峡大坝。在考察和走访过程中,习近平这些话成为媒体纷纷引用的"金句"。

国家要强大、民族要复兴,必须靠我们自己砥砺奋进、不懈奋斗。

The great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation can only be achieved through untiring struggle.

我们要靠自己的努力,大国重器必须掌握在自己手里。

We must rely on our own efforts, and hold the great strength in our hands.

核心技术、关键技术,化缘是化不来的,要靠自己拼搏。

To get core and key technology, begging alms won't work. We must rely on our own hard work.

25日上午,习近平总书记驱车一个半小时,从宜昌前往荆州。在荆州港码头登上轮船,顺江而下,考察长江。船行4个小时,抵达石首港。随后,他又驱车一个多小时,深入到长江湖南岳阳段考察。

他指出:

修复长江生态环境,是新时代赋予我们的艰巨任务,也是人民群众的热切期盼。

Restoration of the river's ecological environment is an arduous task that the new era has entrusted to us and the high expectations of the people.

绝不容许长江生态环境在我们这一代人手上继续恶化下去,一定要给子孙后代留下一条清洁美丽的万里长江!

We must not allow the ecological environment of the Yangtze River to continue deteriorating in the hands of our generation, and we must leave our descendants a clean and beautiful Yangtze River.

26日下午,习近平主持召开深入推动长江经济带发展座谈会。听取大家发言后,习近平发表了重要讲话。

他强调:

必须从中华民族长远利益考虑,把修复长江生态环境摆在压倒性位置,共抓大保护、不搞大开发。

We must proceed from the long-term interests of the Chinese nation to put restoring the ecological environment of the Yangtze River at a dominant position, making all-out efforts to protect it, and forbidding large-scale development of the river.

努力把长江经济带建设成为生态更优美、交通更顺畅、经济更协调、市场更统一、机制更科学的黄金经济带。

The aim is to build the economic belt into a golden economic belt featuring more beautiful ecology, more smooth transport, more coordinated economy, more integrated market and more scientific mechanisms.

习近平明确提出了推动长江经济带发展需要正确把握的5个关系。

第一,正确把握整体推进和重点突破的关系,全面做好长江生态环境保护修复工作。

First, efforts should be made to properly deal with the relationship between pressing ahead on the whole and making breakthroughs in key areas, so as to protect and restore the ecological environment of the Yangtze River in all aspects.

第二,正确把握生态环境保护和经济发展的关系,探索协同推进生态优先和绿色发展新路子。

Second, efforts should be made to properly deal with the relationship between ecological environment protection and economic development, and explore a new path which puts ecology first while pursuing green development.

第三,正确把握总体谋划和久久为功的关系,坚定不移将一张蓝图干到底。

Third, efforts should be made to properly deal with the relationship between making an overall plan and making unremitting efforts, and stick to a single blueprint until the end.

第四,正确把握破除旧动能和培育新动能的关系,推动长江经济带建设现代化经济体系。

Fourth, efforts should be made to properly deal with the relationship between getting rid of old growth engines and cultivating new engines, and facilitate the establishment of a modern economic system for the Yangtze River economic belt.

第五,正确把握自身发展和协同发展的关系,努力将长江经济带打造成为有机融合的高效经济体。

Finally, efforts should be made to properly deal with the relationship between developing individually and developing in a coordinated way so as to make the economic belt an efficient economic entity.

博鳌亚洲论坛 Boao Forum for Asia

President Xi Jinping delivered a keynote speech at the opening ceremony of the Boao Forum for Asia Annual Conference 2018 on Tuesday.

10日,国家主席习近平出席博鳌亚洲论坛2018年年会开幕式并发表主旨演讲。

博鳌亚洲论坛2018年年会于4月8日至11日在海南博鳌举行。本次年会以"开放创新的亚洲,繁荣发展的世界(An Open and Innovative Asia for a World of Greater Prosperity)"为主题。在主旨演讲(keynote speech)中,习近平主席宣布,中国决定在扩大开放方面采取一系列新的重大举措(a number of landmark measures to boost opening-up)。

第一,大幅度放宽市场准入(significantly broaden market access)。今年,我们将推出几项有标志意义的举措。在服务业特别是金融业方面,去年年底宣布的放宽银行、证券、保险行业外资股比限制的重大措施要确保落地(ensure these measures are materialized),同时要加快保险行业开放进程,放宽外资金融机构设立限制,扩大外资金融机构在华业务范围,拓宽中外金融市场合作领域(ease restrictions on the establishment of foreign financial institutions in China and expand their business scope, and open up more areas of cooperation between Chinese and foreign financial markets)。在制造业方面,目前已基本开放,保留限制的主要是汽车、船舶、飞机等少数行业,现在这些行业已经具备开放基础,下一步要尽快放宽外资股比限制特别是汽车行业外资限制(going forward, we will reduce as soon as possible limits on foreign investment in these industries, automobiles in particular)。

第二,创造更有吸引力的投资环境(create a more favorable investment environment)。投资环境就像空气,空气清新才能吸引更多外资(investment environment is like air, only fresh air can attract more investment from the outside)。过去,中国吸引外资主要靠优惠政策(rely mainly on providing favorable policies for foreign investors in the past),现在要更多靠改善投资环境(improve the investment environment)。我们将加强同国际经贸规则对接(enhance alignment with international economic and trading rules),增强透明度(increase transparency),强化产权保护(strengthen property right protection),坚持依法办事(uphold the rule of law),鼓励竞争、反对垄断(encourage competition and oppose monopoly)。今年3月,我们组建了国家市场监督管理总局,还有一些其他新的机构,对现有政府机构作出大幅度调整(a major readjustment of government institutions),坚决破除制约使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用、更好发挥政府作用的体制机制弊端(remove the systematic and institutional obstacles that prevent the market from playing a decisive role in resources allocation, and enable the government to better play its role)。今年上半年,我们将完成修订外商投资负面清单工作(complete the revision of the negative list on foreign investment),全面落实准入前国民待遇(national treatment)加负面清单管理制度。

第三,加强知识产权保护(strengthen protection of intellectual property rights)。这是完善产权保护制度最重要的内容,也是提高中国经济竞争力最大的激励(the biggest boost to enhancing the competitiveness of the Chinese economy)。对此,外资企业有要求,中国企业更有要求。今年,我们将重新组建国家知识产权局,完善加大执法力度(step up law enforcement),把违法成本显著提上去(significantly raise the cost for offenders),把法律威慑作用充分发挥出来(fully unlock the deterrent effect of relevant laws)。我们鼓励中外企业开展正常技术交流合作(normal technological exchanges and cooperation),保护在华外资企业合法知识产权。同时,我们希望外国政府加强对中国知识产权的保护。

第四,主动扩大进口(expand imports)。中国不以追求贸易顺差(trade surplus)为目标,真诚希望扩大进口,促进经常项目收支平衡。今年,我们将相当幅度降低汽车进口关税(lower the import tariffs for vehicles),同时降低部分其他产品进口关税,努力增加人民群众需求比较集中的特色优势产品进口(import more products that are competitive and needed by the Chinese people),加快加入世界贸易组织《政府采购协定》进程。我们希望发达国家对正常合理的高技术产品贸易停止人为设限,放宽对华高技术产品出口管制(stop imposing restrictions on normal and reasonable trade of high-tech products and relax export controls on such trade with China)。今年11月,我们将在上海举办首届中国国际进口博览会。这不是一般性的会展,而是我们主动开放市场的重大政策宣示和行动(a major policy initiative and commitment taken of our own accord to open up the Chinese market)。欢迎各国朋友来华参加。

大科学工程 "big science" projects

China's State Council has issued a set of guidelines to encourage the launch of more international "big science" projects.

国务院印发了一系列鼓励组织国际大科学工程的指导方案。

The guidelines, which were distributed to provincial-level governments as well as ministries and institutions of the State Council, called on them to take the lead in launching international big science research plans and projects, using domestic and overseas scientific resources.

该方案要求省级政府以及国务院各部委、各直属机构利用国内外科学资源,牵头组织国际大科学计划和大科学工程。

《方案》指出,国际大科学计划和大科学工程(international big science research plans and projects)是人类开拓知识前沿、探索未知世界和解决重大全球性问题的重要手段,是一个国家综合实力(comprehensive strength)和科技创新竞争力(competitiveness in science and innovation)的重要体现。大科学计划以实现重大科学问题的原创性突破(original breakthroughs in major scientific problems)为目标,是基础研究在科学前沿领域的全方位拓展,对于推动世界科技创新与进步、应对人类社会面临的共同挑战具有重要支撑作用。

《方案》明确了我国牵头组织国际大科学计划和大科学工程面向2020年、2035年以及本世纪中叶的“三步走”发展目标:

近期目标:到2020年,培育3—5个项目,研究遴选并启动1—2个我国牵头组织的大科学计划,初步形成牵头组织大科学计划的机制做法(forming a mechanism of launching big science projects),为后续工作探索积累有益经验。

中期目标:到2035年,培育6—10个项目,启动培育成熟项目,形成我国牵头组织的大科学计划初期布局(building a preliminary framework of launching big science projects),提升在全球若干科技领域的影响力(enhancing China's influence in several scientific and technological fields around the world)。

远期目标:到本世纪中叶,培育若干项目,启动培育成熟项目,我国原始科技创新能力显著提高,在国际科技创新治理体系中发挥重要作用(playing significant role in international scientific innovation and governance),持续为全球重大科技议题作出贡献(contributing to major global scientific and technological issues)。

三大攻坚战 three tough battles

中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席、中央财经委员会主任习近平4月2日下午主持召开中央财经委员会第一次会议,研究打好三大攻坚战的思路和举措,研究审定《中央财经委员会工作规则》。

三大攻坚战(three tough battles)是:防范化解金融风险(preventing and defusing financial risks)、精准脱贫(targeted poverty alleviation)、污染防治(pollution control)。

习近平在会上发表重要讲话强调:

防范化解金融风险,事关国家安全、发展全局、人民财产安全,是实现高质量发展必须跨越的重大关口。

Preventing and defusing financial risks is relevant to national security, overall development, and the security of people's property, and is a key threshold that the country must cross to achieve high-quality growth.

精准脱贫攻坚战已取得阶段性进展,只能打赢打好。

The country has made progress in its fight against poverty, a battle that must be won.

环境问题是全社会关注的焦点,也是全面建成小康社会能否得到人民认可的一个关键,要坚决打好打胜这场攻坚战。

Environmental issues are a major concern for the public, and are decisive to Chinese people's judgment of the success of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, this is a battle we must win.

会议指出,打好防范化解金融风险攻坚战,要坚持底线思维,坚持稳中求进,抓住主要矛盾。地方政府和企业特别是国有企业要尽快把杠杆降下来(China should reduce the leverage ratio of local governments and companies, especially State-owned enterprises),努力实现宏观杠杆率稳定和逐步下降。要分类施策,根据不同领域、不同市场金融风险情况,采取差异化、有针对性的办法(tailored policies should be used to control risks in different financial markets)。

会议强调,打好精准脱贫攻坚战,要咬定总攻目标,严格坚持现行扶贫标准(authorities should stick to the current poverty relief standards),不能擅自拔高标准,也不能降低标准(should not make arbitrary decisions to raise or lower the standards)。

会议指出,打好污染防治攻坚战,要明确目标任务,到2020年使主要污染物排放总量大幅减少(significant reduction of the release of major pollutants),生态环境质量总体改善。

要坚持源头防治,调整“四个结构”,做到“四减四增”。一是要调整产业结构(adjust industrial structure),减少过剩和落后产业(phasing out surplus and backward industries),增加新的增长动能(fostering new growth drivers)。二是要调整能源结构(adjust energy structure),减少煤炭消费(cutting coal consumption),增加清洁能源使用(increasing the use of clean energy)。三是要调整运输结构(adjust structure of transport),减少公路运输量(lowering percentage of road transport),增加铁路运输量(increasing percentage of rail freight)。四是要调整农业投入结构(adjust input structure of agriculture),减少化肥农药使用量(cutting the use of pesticides),增加有机肥使用量(encouraging the use of organic fertilizers)。

征税清单 tariff list

China announced on Wednesday a list of US products valued at $50 billion annually that are subject to additional tariffs as a reciprocal trade measure to safeguard its legitimate interests. Earlier, the US government rolled out a massive list of tariffs for $50 billion worth of Chinese products.

4日,作为报复性贸易举措,我国公布了拟对自美国进口的500亿美元商品加征关税的产品清单,以保护我国的合法权益。早前,美国政府公布了对我国价值500亿美元出口商品的大规模征税清单。

3日,美国贸易代表办公室依据"301调查(Section 301 investigation)"结果,公布了对华征税清单(tariff list)。清单涉及航空航天(aerospace)、信息和通信技术(information and communication technology)、机器人(robotics)和机械(machinery)等行业,包含大约1300个独立关税项目,涉及我国500亿美元出口,建议税率为25%。多家美国媒体表示此次加征关税直指中国的高科技制造业产品。

我国商务部新闻发言人第一时间表示,美方不顾中方的严正交涉(disregard strong representations by China),毫无事实依据,公布征税建议(tariff proposals),是典型的单边主义和贸易保护主义做法(a typical unilateralist and protectionist practice),中方强烈谴责,坚决反对。中方拟立即将美方有关做法诉诸世贸组织争端解决机制(the WTO dispute settlement system)。发言人还表示,中方准备对美产品采取同等力度、同等规模的对等措施(take counter measures on US products with equal force and scale)。

财政部4日发布消息,经国务院批准,国务院关税税则委员会决定对原产于美国的大豆(soybeans)、牛肉(beef)、汽车(cars)、化工品(chemicals)、飞机(airplanes)等14类106项商品加征25%的关税,涉及中国自美进口金额约500亿美元。

人才争夺战 talent scramble battle

The favorable policies offered by second- and third-tier cities to attract more talents have put pressure on first-tier cities such as Beijing and Shanghai to take similar measures.

二三线城市推出的吸引人才的优惠政策对北京、上海等一线城市构成了压力,促使这些一线城市推出类似举措。

今年以来,全国多个城市陆续发布"引才新政"(new favorable policies to attract more talents),符合条件的人才将获得包括落户(permanent household registration, or hukou)、租房补贴(subsidy for rental housing)、安家费(settling-in allowance)、创业贷款(loans for startups)等多方面的政策激励。

3月下旬,北京、上海等一线城市接连发布人才新政,从全球引进各领域高端人才(high-end talents)。北京提出建立优秀人才引进的"绿色通道"(a "green channel" for outstanding talents),可在聘用单位的集体户落户,配偶及未成年子女随调随迁。上海同样为高端人才及其家属在户口、住房等方面给予优待(special treatment for high-end talents and their families)。

中国人民大学劳动与人事学院副教授鲁全认为,京沪等一线城市(first-tier cities)从全球引进高端人才,标志着人才争夺战(talent scramble battle)已经覆盖全国主要城市。对人才的渴求实则是城市转型的需求,也是整个国家进入高质量发展(high-quality development)阶段的必然选择。

积分落户 points-based household registration

Beijing will launch its points-based application system for household registration on Monday, a move to meet the demand of nonnative Beijing residents to stabilize their living situations in the capital, the capital's Human Resources and Social Security Bureau said on Wednesday.

北京市人力社保局11日表示,从4月16日启动积分落户申报工作,以满足长期在京稳定就业和生活的非京籍人口的需求。

据介绍,北京市积分落户申报的核心工作可以用“498”这三个数字来概括,即4项资格条件,9个积分指标和8个经办步骤。

4项资格条件是指:

申请人必须同时满足持有《北京市居住证》;

Have a temporary Beijing residence permit

不超过法定退休年龄;

Be below retirement age (under 55 for women and 60 for men)

在京连续缴纳社会保险7年及以上;

Have made social insurance payments for seven consecutive years

无刑事犯罪记录。

Have no criminal record

这4项资格条件缺一不可,否则就不能进行申报。

9个积分指标包括:合法稳定就业指标(legal and stable employment)、合法稳定住所指标(legal and stable residence)、教育背景指标(educational background)、职住区域指标(area of employment and residence)、创新创业指标(innovation and entrepreneurial ability)、纳税指标(tax)、年龄指标(age)、荣誉表彰指标(awards and honors)、守法记录指标(legal record)。

8个经办步骤,则是指申请人需要经过8个环节才能完成申报工作,从系统注册(registration)、关联单位(sumbitting through employers)、积分填报(points registration)、确认提交(submission),到数据核查(fact check)、查看初核结果(result of preliminary review)、复查(fact review)及现场审核(field check)、发布及公示(publish the check results)等。

南海阅兵 navy review in the South China Sea

President Xi Jinping reviewed the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) Navy in the South China Sea Thursday morning, saying that the need to build a strong navy "has never been more urgent than today." Xi, also general secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee and chairman of the Central Military Commission (CMC), called for efforts to build a first-class navy.

4月12日上午,中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平在南海海域检阅海军部队时指出,建设强大的人民海军的任务从来没有像今天这样紧迫。他强调,要把人民海军全面建成世界一流海军。

此次阅兵是新中国历史上规模最大的海上阅兵(the largest navy review in the People's Republic of China since its founding in 1949),有48艘战舰(warships)、76架战机(combat aircraft)以及10000余名官兵(more than 10,000 Navy personnel)参与。

受阅舰艇按作战编组组成战略打击(strategic strike)、水下攻击(submerged attack)、远海作战(open-sea operations)、航母打击(aircraft carrier strike)、两栖登陆(amphibious landing)、近海防御(offshore waters defense)、综合保障(comprehensive support)等7个作战群;受阅飞机组成舰载直升机(ship-borne helicopter)、预警指挥(warning and command)、对海突击(air-to-ship strike)、远距支援掩护(long distance escort)、制空作战(air-to-air strike)等10个空中梯队。

这次海上阅兵,辽宁舰航母编队(a naval formation consisting of aircraft carrier Liaoning)精彩亮相,一大批新型潜艇、水面舰艇、作战飞机集中展示,党的十八大后列装舰艇占受阅舰艇一半以上。

检阅结束之后,习近平发表重要讲话。他指出:

建设一支强大的人民海军,寄托着中华民族向海图强的世代夙愿,是实现中华民族伟大复兴的重要保障。

It has always been China's aspiration to have a strong navy, which serves as a key guarantee to achieve the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

习近平要求海军将士们,全面贯彻党对军队绝对领导的根本原则和制度,坚定理想信念,弘扬光荣传统,大力推进科技创新,加快发展新型作战力量,着力构建现代海上作战体系。

He asked naval officers and soldiers to fully implement the Party's absolute leadership over the armed forces, be firm in ideals and convictions, and uphold the glorious traditions, while pushing for technological innovation, developing new types of battle forces, and building a modern maritime combat system.

保持高度戒备状态,时刻听从党和人民召唤,坚决捍卫国家权益,努力为维护世界和地区和平稳定作出新的更大的贡献。

Xi asked naval officers and soldiers to remain on high alert, answer the calls of the Party and the people at all times, resolutely defend the national interests, and strive to contribute more to upholding the peace and stability of the region and the world.

抗癌药 anti-cancer medicines, cancer drugs

Starting May 1, China will levy no tariffs on imports of anti-cancer medicines, the State Council said on Thursday.

国务院12日称,自5月1日起,我国将对进口抗癌药实施零关税。

国务院总理李克强12日主持召开国务院常务会议,确定发展"互联网+医疗健康"措施(develop the Internet plus Medical and Healthcare strategy),缓解看病就医难题、提升人民健康水平(improve people's health);决定对进口抗癌药实施零关税并鼓励创新药进口(encourage the import of more innovative drugs),顺应民生期盼使患者更多受益。

会议指出,从5月1日起,将包括抗癌药在内的所有普通药品(all common drugs including cancer drugs)、具有抗癌作用的生物碱类药品(cancer alkaloid-based drugs)及有实际进口的中成药(imported traditional Chinese medicine)进口关税降至零,使我国实际进口的全部抗癌药实现零关税。较大幅度降低抗癌药生产、进口环节增值税税负(value added tax in the production and import of drugs will drop by a large margin)。

会议同时指出,将研究综合措施,采取政府集中采购(centralized government procurement)、将进口创新药特别是急需的抗癌药(much-needed cancer drugs)及时纳入医保报销目录(be incorporated into the catalogue of medical insurance reimbursement)等方式,并研究利用跨境电商渠道(means of cross-border e-commerce),多措并举消除流通环节各种不合理加价,让群众切实感受到急需抗癌药的价格有明显降低。会议指出,加快创新药进口上市(the import of innovative drugs will be accelerated and they will come into the market at an earlier date)。将临床试验(clinical trials)申请由批准制改为到期默认制,对进口化学药改为凭企业检验结果通关,不再逐批强制检验。

中国特色自由贸易港 free trade port with Chinese characteristics

China on Saturday unveiled guidelines on supporting the southern island province of Hainan to deepen reform and opening up, with details on turning it into a pilot free trade zone and creating a "free trade port with Chinese characteristics."

我国于4月14日发布支持海南全面深化改革开放的指导意见,列出将海南建设成为自由贸易试验区和中国特色自由贸易港的详细举措。

《意见》对海南作出了新的四大战略定位。一是全面深化改革开放试验区(pilot zone for comprehensively deepening reform and opening-up)。二是国家生态文明试验区(pilot zone for the country's ecological civilization)。三是国际旅游消费中心(an international tourism and consumption center)。四是国家重大战略服务保障区( zone offering services and support for the country's major strategies)。

根据《意见》,海南未来将按照“四步走”发展目标实现新发展。

2020年,与全国同步实现全面建成小康社会目标,自由贸易试验区建设取得重要进展( achieve important progress in building Hainan province into a pilot free trade zone),国际开放度显著提高;

2025年,经济增长质量和效益显著提高;自由贸易港制度初步建立(basically establish a free trade port system),营商环境达到国内一流水平;

2035年,在社会主义现代化建设上走在全国前列;自由贸易港的制度体系和运作模式更加成熟(make the free trade port system and operational mode of Hainan more mature),营商环境跻身全球前列;

到本世纪中叶,率先实现社会主义现代化(take the lead in achieving socialist modernization),形成高度市场化、国际化、法治化、现代化的制度体系(form a highly commercialized, internationalized, legalized and modernized system),成为综合竞争力和文化影响力领先的地区。

《意见》明确提出,以供给侧结构性改革(supply-side structural reform)为主线,从深化供给侧结构性改革、实施创新驱动发展战略(innovation-driven development strategy)、深入推进经济体制改革(deepen economic structural reform)、提高基础设施网络化智能化水平(improve intelligence level of infrastructure)4个方面建设海南现代化经济体系。

《意见》明确,将按照先行先试、风险可控、分步推进、突出特色原则,在海南推动形成全面开放新格局,高标准高质量建设自由贸易试验区(build a free trade pilot zone with high standard and quality),探索建设中国特色自由贸易港(free trade port with Chinese characteristics),加强风险防控体系建设(strengthen risk control system)。

在拓展旅游消费发展空间方面,《意见》提出海南将实施更加开放便利的离岛免税购物政策(off-shore duty-free policy),实现离岛旅客全覆盖,提高免税购物限额;支持海南开通跨国邮轮旅游航线(transnational cruise ship line);有序推进西沙旅游资源开发,稳步开放海岛游;制定支持境外患者到博鳌乐城国际医疗旅游先行区诊疗的便利化政策;探索发展竞猜型体育彩票(sports betting lottery)和大型国际赛事即开彩票(instant lottery on large-scale international events);大力推进海南旅游消费国际化等。

总体国家安全观 the holistic approach to national security

President Xi Jinping on Tuesday called for efforts to fully implement a holistic approach to national security and break new ground in national security in the new era. Xi, also general secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee and chairman of the Central Military Commission, made the remarks at the first meeting of the 19th CPC Central Committee National Security Commission, which he heads.

中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席、中央国家安全委员会主席习近平4月17日在十九届中央国家安全委员会第一次会议上强调,全面贯彻落实总体国家安全观,开创新时代国家安全工作新局面。

习近平强调,要加强党对国家安全工作的集中统一领导(strengthen the centralized, unified leadership of the Party over national security),正确把握当前国家安全形势,全面贯彻落实总体国家安全观,努力开创新时代国家安全工作新局面,为实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标、实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦提供牢靠安全保障(provide a firm safety guarantee for realizing the two centenary goals and the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation)。

习近平强调,

全面贯彻落实总体国家安全观,必须坚持统筹发展和安全两件大事(to fully implement the holistic approach to national security, both development and security should be ensured),既要善于运用发展成果夯实国家安全的实力基础,又要善于塑造有利于经济社会发展的安全环境;

坚持人民安全、政治安全、国家利益至上的有机统一(the integration of protecting the people's safety, maintaining political safety and safeguarding national interests),人民安全是国家安全的宗旨,政治安全是国家安全的根本,国家利益至上是国家安全的准则,实现人民安居乐业(the people live and work in peace and contentment)、党的长期执政(long-term rule of the Party)、国家长治久安(enduring peace and stability of the country);

坚持立足于防,又有效处置风险(effectively deal with risks while prioritizing risk prevention);

坚持维护和塑造国家安全,塑造是更高层次更具前瞻性的维护,要发挥负责任大国作用,同世界各国一道,推动构建人类命运共同体(China will continue to play its role as a responsible major country and push to build a community of shared future for the mankind);

坚持科学统筹,始终把国家安全置于中国特色社会主义事业全局中来把握,充分调动各方面积极性,形成维护国家安全合力(call for joint efforts from all walks of life to safeguard national security)。

习近平指出,国家安全工作要适应新时代新要求(the work regarding national security should meet the new requirements in the new era),一手抓当前、一手谋长远,切实做好维护政治安全(safeguard political security)、健全国家安全制度体系(establish sound national security systems and institutions)、完善国家安全战略和政策(improve strategies and policies)、强化国家安全能力建设(enhance capacity-building)、防控重大风险(prevent and control risks)、加强法治保障(promote rule of law)、增强国家安全意识(raise the national security awareness)等方面工作。

空中医疗急救手册 In-Flight First-Aid Handbook

The nation's first manual for in-flight first-aid was published on Wednesday by China Eastern Airlines, which hopes to set the standard for handling medical emergencies in the air.

我国首部空中医疗急救手册18日由东方航空公司发布,该手册将为空中急救提供规范和标准。

此次发布的《空中医疗急救手册(In-Flight First-Aid Handbook)》在编制过程中,充分吸收了东航机组、民航总医院和上海医师志愿者的医疗专家的专业意见。整个手册分为十八个章节,按照医疗病症划分,详细描述了各类常见病症的表症(basic knowledge of common illnesses)、救助方法(basic first-aid skills)、用药指导(medication guides)等,并引用了大量机上实际发生的典型案例(case studies),具有较强的指导性和操作性。

近年来,民用航空运输快速发展(rapid development of civil aviation),航空旅客运输量不断攀升,空中旅客突发疾病事件也呈逐年上升趋势。据国际民航不完全统计,空中紧急医学事件(in-flight medical emergencies)的发生率为22.6例/百万旅客,其中死亡率(death rate)为0.1-0.8例/百万旅客,每100万次飞行中就有210次因空中医学事件而紧急备降(diverted flights)或返航(returned flights),平均每12.6例就造成1次紧急备降或返航。

绕岛巡航 island patrol

A Chinese air force formation conducted island patrols recently during a training exercise with an aim of improving the ability to safeguard national sovereignty and territorial integrity, an air force spokesperson confirmed Thursday.

空军发言人19日表示,我国空军近期在训练期间组织进行绕岛巡航,锤炼提升维护国家主权和领土完整的能力。

空军开展的海上方向实战化军事训练,出动了轰-6K(H-6K bombers)、苏-30、歼-11(Su-30 and J-11 fighters)和侦察机(reconnaissance aircraft)、预警机(early warning aircraft)等多型多架战机。轰-6K等战机实施了“绕岛巡航”(island patrol)训练课题,提升了机动能力,检验了实战能力。

空军新闻发言人表示,按照“空天一体、攻防兼备”战略目标(the strategic goal of building air-space capabilities and conducting offensive and defensive operations),空军深入开展海上方向实战化军事训练(real combat-like military trainings),备战打仗能力发生历史性变化。空军有坚定的意志、充分的信心和足够的能力,捍卫国家主权和领土完整(the air force has the resolve, the confidence, and the ability to safeguard national sovereignty and territorial integrity)。

全域限购政策 islandwide quota policy

Hainan has announced a strict, islandwide quota policy to curb speculation in the housing market and better promote building the island into a pilot international free-trade zone.

海南省公布了严格的全域限购政策,以遏制房地产市场的炒作行为,将海南建设成为国际自由贸易试验区。

今年3月31日,海南省住建厅发布《关于做好稳定房地产市场工作的通知》,规定五指山、保亭、琼中、白沙4个中部生态核心区(central ecological core areas)市县建设的商品住宅只能销售给本市县居民(only open for purchase by local residents);非本省户籍居民家庭在海口、三亚、琼海实行限购的区域购房,须提供至少一名家庭成员在海南省累计60个月及以上个人所得税或社会保险缴纳证明(tax records or social security payments for the past 60 months in Hainan from at least one member of the applicant's family)。

此次出台的全域限购政策(islandwide quota policy)规定,除上述区域之外,非本省户籍居民家庭购买住房的,须提供至少一名家庭成员在海南累计24个月及以上个人所得税或社会保险缴纳证明;自本通知发布后,户籍新迁入本省的居民家庭(household registration newly transferred to Hainan)只能购买一套住房,并须提供至少一名家庭成员在海南省累计24个月及以上个人所得税或社会保险缴纳证明。

同时,海南省还规定了严格的限贷和限制转让(restrictions in loan and transfer)措施。非本省户籍居民家庭在海南省购买住房,申请商业性个人住房贷款首付款比例不得低于70%(a minimum 70 percent down payment);居民家庭或企事业单位、社会组织在海南省购买的住房,取得不动产权证满5年后方可转让。

在限制买方市场的同时,新规定对卖方市场也做出了明确要求。对取得预售许可证的商品住宅项目(commercial housing projects with pre-sale permits),房地产开发企业要公开全部房源并明码标价(clearly mark the prices of the houses),一次性对外销售(put up all the houses for sale),不得分期分批销售。商品住宅价格备案后,6个月内不得调高备案价格(recorded price can't be increased within 6 months);调整备案价格的须重新备案。此外,海南省将大幅减少直至停止供应外销商品住宅项目用地。

高速气动悬浮列车 high-speed aerotrain

A high-speed aerotrain that could run 400 to 500 kilometers per hour is being developed by China and Japan in a joint effort, Chinese media Chongqing Morning Post reported.

据《重庆晨报》报道,中日两国正在合力研发一种时速可达400-500公里的高速气动悬浮列车。

对外公布的这款高速气动悬浮列车(high-speed aerotrain)模型长一米多,子弹头车头似高铁列车,车身则有环形翼(annular wing)和气流推进器(airflow propeller),又跟飞机有些相似。

重庆理工大学领衔参与高速气动悬浮列车研发的教授赖晨光介绍,这样的高速气动悬浮列车,完全采用自然能源驱动(fully powered by natural energy),使用成本低,速度还非常快。

If the train runs at a speed of 500 km/h, the energy it consumes is only 1/3 of that consumed by current high-speed trains, and 1/6 of the maglev trains.

如果以时速500公里为前提,气动悬浮列车的能耗是高铁的1/3、磁悬浮列车的1/6。

Trial manufacturing and test runs of the first and second generation aerotrain have been conducted in Japan.

高速气动悬浮列车第一代、第二代样式试制及实车试验已经在日本完成。

根据规划,日本将于2025年开通第一条高速气动悬浮列车线路(the first high-speed aerotrain line)。接下来,中日团队将基于新设计的“LOOP”造型,为其配备阻燃性的镁合金车身(train body made of magnesium alloy)并开展更加深入的试验研究与验证。

隐形贫困人口 the invisible poverty-stricken population/the invisible poor

最近,微博和朋友圈的好多人都自称是“隐形贫困人口”。

根据网上的解释,“隐形贫困人口”指有些人看起来每天都有吃有喝有玩,但实际上非常穷。

The invisible poverty-stricken population, or the invisible poor, refers to people whose consumption exceeds their income. They usually live a quality life and spend a lot of money on food, clothing, gym, spas and other daily expenses, which leaves them little or no money in their bank accounts.

“隐形贫困人口”指那些花的比挣的多的人。他们生活讲究质量,在美食、衣服、健身房、水疗按摩以及其他日常支出方面开销很大,银行账户里基本没什么钱。

其实,不仅在中国,“隐形贫困”现象在许多国家都存在,尤其是在年轻人当中。

据美国国家退休安全研究所(National Institute on Retirement Security)的统计,在21岁-32岁的年轻人中,超过66%的人没有为自己的后半生预备存款。

分析认为,造成“隐形贫困”现象的原因之一是害怕落伍,害怕自己落后于同龄人。

Whether it's enjoying the newest restaurants, wearing the latest fashion, or taking expensive vacations, the fear of falling behind their friends is forcing young people to pile up thousands of dollars in debt.

去新开的餐厅尝鲜,紧跟潮流的时尚衣着,或者来个奢华假期,哪个方面都不想落后于小伙伴,年轻人们由此累积了数千美元的债务。

这种情况,在英语里叫FOMO(fear of missing out)。

FOMO(错失恐惧症)形容担心错过别人去参加的活动或所做的有趣的事情,这种焦虑通常是由于在社交网络中看到了别人发送的帖子而引起的。

怎么样?说的是你吗?

朝韩首脑会晤 inter-Korean summit

The Republic of Korea (ROK)'s President Moon Jae-in and top leader of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) Kim Jong-un began formal talks in the South Korean side of the border village of Panmunjom in the third-ever inter-Korean summit Friday.

朝鲜最高领导人金正恩27日与韩国总统文在寅在板门店韩方一侧举行正式会谈。这是韩朝双方举行的第三次首脑会晤。

当地时间9时30分许,金正恩在板门店跨过军事分界线(cross the military demarcation line inside Panmunjom),进入韩方一侧,受到等候在那里的文在寅的欢迎。金正恩成为朝鲜战争后首位踏上韩国土地的朝鲜最高领导人(the first DPRK leader to set foot on the ROK's soil since the end of the Korean War)。

在金正恩的邀请下,两人携手跨越军事分界线,在朝方一侧短暂停留后回到韩方一侧(Kim invited Moon to step briefly across the demarcation line into the DPRK side, before the pair stepped back into the ROK territory - all the while holding hands)。随后,韩朝领导人走入会晤地点"和平之家(Peace House)"。金正恩在"和平之家"题词:新的历史从此开始——在和平的时代,历史的出发点(a new history begins now - at the starting point of history and the era of peace)。

10时15分左右,文在寅和金正恩开始进行正式会谈(launch formal talks)。金正恩在开场发言中表示,将在会谈中就朝韩共同关注的问题坦诚对话(frankly discuss issues of mutual interest),促会谈取得可喜成果(create a good result)。文在寅则指出,金正恩跨过军事分界线的瞬间,让板门店从分裂的象征转变为和平的象征(Panmunjom has changed into a symbol of peace from a symbol of division at the moment Kim walked over the MDL)。文在寅提议,希望韩朝大胆对话(engage in frank talks),共叙10年来的未尽之言,共同努力达成协议,为期待和平的民众和全世界人民(the whole Korean people and the people who want peace)献上大礼。

当日下午,文在寅与金正恩进行共同植树活动(joint tree-planting ceremony),祈愿朝鲜半岛和平与繁荣(peace and prosperity)。韩国青瓦台发言人尹永灿在板门店表示,在历时约100分钟的正式闭门会谈(formal closed-door dialogue)期间,金正恩和文在寅就朝鲜半岛无核化(denuclearization on the Korean Peninsula),构建半岛永久和平条约(the establishment of a permanent peace pact)以及改善韩朝关系(the improvement of inter-Korean ties)等问题进行探讨。

双方在会晤后签署了《为实现半岛和平、繁荣和统一的板门店宣言(the Panmunjom Declaration for Peace, Prosperity and Unification of the Korean Peninsula)》。双方宣布,为在年内把朝鲜战争停战协定转换为和平协定(turn the armistice agreement into a peace treaty)、构建永久巩固的和平机制(establish a permanent, firm peace regime),将积极推动韩朝美三方会谈或韩朝美中四方会谈(push for talks, which would also involve China and the United States)。

宣言承诺,韩朝双方将全面停止“敌对行为”(completely cease all hostile acts against each other in every domain),加强交流合作,在开城设立南北共同联络事务所(establish a joint liaison office with resident representatives of both sides in the Gaeseong region)、举行离散家属会面(reunion programs for the separated familie)等活动。双方商定,文在寅将于今年秋天访朝。

这是韩朝之间第三次首脑会晤(the third-ever inter-Korean summit)。2000年,时任韩国总统金大中访朝与时任朝鲜最高领导人金正日首次会晤(hold the first-ever summit),签署了《北南共同宣言》(North-South Joint Declaration)。2007年,金正日和时任韩国总统卢武铉在平壤举行第二次朝韩首脑会晤,双方发表《北南关系发展与和平繁荣宣言》。该宣言旨在为朝鲜战争画上句号(end the Korean War),并为朝鲜半岛永久和平奠定基础。

(中国日报网英语点津 马文英)

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