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2021年9月新闻热词汇总

中国日报网 2021-10-01 11:00

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9月热词有:2021服贸会,我国首个教育督导问责指导意见,文娱领域综合治理,东京残奥会闭幕,多部门约谈重点网络游戏企业和平台,杭州亚运会火炬形象,内地与香港债券市场互联互通(债券通)南向合作(简称“南向通”)上线,神舟十二号载人飞船三名航天员安全返回,北京冬奥会、冬残奥会主题口号发布,关键防疫政策发布。

 


2021年中国国际服务贸易交易会 2021 China International Fair for Trade in Services

2021年中国国际服务贸易交易会于9月2日在京开幕。

The 2021 China International Fair for Trade in Services is going to be held both offline and online from Thursday to Sept 7 in Beijing. Participants from about 153 countries and regions are attending this global event.
9月2日至7日,2021年中国国际服务贸易交易会将以线上线下结合的方式在北京举行。约153个国家和地区的参展商将参加此次全球盛会。


【知识点】

根据世界贸易组织(WTO)的界定,服务贸易(trade in services)有12大领域,包括商业服务(business services)、通讯服务(communication services)、建筑及相关工程服务(construction and related services)、金融服务(financial services)、旅游及旅行相关服务(tourism and related services)、娱乐文化与体育服务(entertainment, culture and sports services)、运输服务(transport services )、健康与社会服务(health and social services)、教育服务(educational services)、分销服务(distribution services)、环境服务(environmental services)及其他服务。

中国国际服务贸易交易会(China International Fair for Trade in Services,CIFTIS)的前身是“京交会”(China (Beijing) International Fair for Trade in Services/Beijing Fair),自2012年首届举办以来已8年。作为服务贸易领域的龙头展会,服贸会同广交会、进博会一起成为中国对外开放的三大展会。

2021年服贸会把握数字经济(digital economy)、碳达峰(carbon emission peaking)、碳中和(carbon neutrality)等全球热点趋势,突出服务开放合作促进世界经济复苏,主题为“数字开启未来,服务促进发展(Towards Digital Future and Service-Driven Development)”。围绕主题将举办全球服务贸易峰会(Global Trade in Services Summit)、论坛和会议、展览展示、推介洽谈(promotion and negotiation)、成果发布、边会6类活动。

 

打造“双展区”

Apart from the traditional venue of the China National Convention Center, some CIFTIS events will take place in Shougang Park, a new city landmark, once a vacated industrial site in Shijingshan district,Beijing.
除常规举办地点国家会议中心外,本届服贸会部分活动将安排在北京首钢园举行。首钢园位于北京市石景山区,曾经是一处空置的工业园区,如今是北京市的一个城市新地标。

 

首次设置数字服务专区

The China International Fair for Trade in Services (CIFTIS) will feature a special section for digital services for the first time, organizers said.
组织方表示,本届服贸会将首次设置数字服务专区。


Leading international and domestic digital services enterprises will make use of the section to showcase their latest technologies, achievements and applications, said the organizing committee.
国内外领先的数字服务企业将在专区展示他们最新的技术、成果以及应用。


金融服务专题展外国参展方数量增加

The CIFTIS hosted 43 foreign financial institutions at the financial services exhibition in 2020, and this year saw the addition of 16 more.
2020年服贸会金融服务专题展有43家外国金融机构参展,今年的外国参展商数量增加了16家。


A total of 143 financial institutions signed up for this year's event, including 84 domestic firms. Foreign names include Morgan Stanley, Mastercard and DBS Bank.
目前共有143家金融组织、机构、企业报名参加今年的服贸会,其中包括84家国内金融组织、机构、企业。国外参展方有摩根士丹利、万事达以及星展银行等。

 

教育督导问责办法 guideline on education inspection and accountability

国务院教育督导委员会印发《教育督导问责办法》,自9月1日起正式施行。

This is China's first guideline on education inspection and accountability which aims to ensure the country's educational laws, regulations, guidelines and policies can be properly implemented at the grassroots.
这是我国首个教育督导问责指导意见,旨在确保我国的教育法规、指导意见和政策在基层能够妥善执行。

【词汇讲解】

这里的accountability就是“问责”,也可以理解为“责任制”,《剑桥英语词典》的解释为“a situation in which someone is responsible for things that happen and can give a satisfactory reason for them”(有人能为发生的事情负责并给出一个令人满意的解释),这个词来源于accountable,常见的搭配是hold someone accountable(让某人承担责任),比如:He knew he would be held accountable for any flaws in the programming.(他知道自己要为程序中出现的所有失误负责)。

问谁的责?

Local governments, related departments, schools and other educational institutions, as well as related staff members, shall be held accountable for activities that hamper the development of education, it said.
办法明确,地方政府及有关职能部门、各类学校和其他教育机构以及有关工作人员如存在阻碍教育发展的问题,按规定进行问责。

 

问什么责?

The guideline categorizes those activities into six types: lack of resolve and commitment in implementing national education policies, poor fulfillment of educational responsibilities, delay in completion of education tasks, irregularities in running educational institutions, major decreases in education quality and multiple safety concerns or opposition to education inspection.
办法明确的问责内容主要包括六类情形:一是贯彻落实国家教育政策不坚决不彻底。二是履行教育职责不到位。三是教育攻坚任务完成严重滞后。四是办学行为不规范。五是教育教学质量下降。六是安全问题较多或拒不接受教育督导。

 

怎么问责?

Higher-level government inspection offices can hold lower-level governments and public schools accountable through public criticism, having talks and administrative punishment.
上级政府督导办公室针对下级政府及公办学校,主要采取公开批评、约谈、行政处罚等问责方式。


The main administrators of lower governments and public schools can be held accountable through having talks, name and shame, administrative punishment, or being handed over to law enforcement authorities and supervisory commissions, it said.
针对下级政府及公办学校的责任人,主要采取约谈、通报批评、组织处理、移交监察机关或司法机关等问责方式。


In addition to those punishments, private schools and tutoring institutions can be fined, ordered to stop student enrollment, and have their operating permits and business licenses revoked.
此外,针对民办学校和教育培训机构责任人,还可采取依法罚没违法所得、责令停止招生,以及吊销从业许可证等问责方式。

 

2020年督导任务主要关注“义务教育教师平均工资收入不低于当地公务员”目标。


China has ensured that the salaries of public primary and middle school teachers are not lower than those of local government officials in the same region, the Ministry of Education said on Wednesday.
教育部9月1日表示,全国已落实“义务教育教师平均工资收入水平不低于当地公务员平均工资收入水平”目标。


国务院教育督导委员会办公室主任、教育部教育督导局局长田祖荫介绍,

All local governments are working on establishing a mechanism for adjusting the salaries of teachers in primary and middle schools in line with those of government officials.
各地政府正在建立义务教育教师工资收入随当地公务员待遇调整的联动机制。

 


文娱产业 culture and entertainment industry

针对流量至上、“饭圈”乱象、违法失德等文娱领域出现的问题,中央宣传部近日印发《关于开展文娱领域综合治理工作的通知》。

According to the circular issued by the Publicity Department of the Communist Party of China Central Committee, China's rapidly-growing culture and entertainment industry is still troubled with various negative phenomena such as excessively high payment of entertainers, tax evasion, excessive focus on viewership, and undesirable fan culture.
中宣部印发的通知指出,随着文娱产业迅速发展,明星天价片酬、偷逃税、流量至上以及“饭圈”乱象等问题迭出。


通知明确:

Online platforms should enhance their oversight and management of registered accounts and guard against activities to fake viewership data, it said.
平台应加强对注册账号的监管,打击各种形式的流量造假行为。


Content reviews of entertainment shows should improve, said the circular, adding that minors are prohibited from participating in idol-making programs.
严管综艺节目内容审核,严禁选用未成年人参加选秀类节目。


Gaming platforms must assume primary responsibility to install anti-addiction systems and improve real-name registration technology, it said.
压实游戏平台主体责任,推进防沉迷系统接入,完善实名验证技术。


Penalties should be increased for actors who have engaged in illegal or unethical behavior, and agencies which condone such behaviors promptly punished, said the circular.
加大对违法失德艺人的惩处,及时对纵容违法失德行为的经纪公司等机构进行惩戒。


The ideological and moral education of children should be beefed up and they should be forbidden from joining "idol" groups and offline support activities, the circular added.
加强青少年思想道德教育,禁止义务教育阶段未成年人参加偶像团组和线下应援活动。

 

9月2日,国家广播电视总局发布公告,要求进一步加强文艺节目及其人员管理,从严整治艺人违法失德、“饭圈”乱象等问题,树立崇德尚艺的行业风气。

The selection of actors and guests should be carefully controlled, with political literacy and moral conduct included as criteria, the National Radio and Television Administration (NRTA) said, adding that actors and guests should be encouraged to participate in public welfare programs and assume social responsibilities.
广电总局明确,节目演员和嘉宾选用上要严格把关,选用标准要包括政治素养和道德品行。倡导鼓励演员和嘉宾担当社会责任,参与公益性节目。


The NRTA said it will bolster regulation of entertainers' payments and punish anyone who is involved in payment irregularity, dual contract and tax evasion.
广电总局表示,将严格片酬管理,严肃惩戒片酬违规、“阴阳合同”、偷逃税行为。


The notice further said that programs portraying "effeminate" behavior and other content deemed "warped" should be stopped, along with shows built around scandals, ostentatious wealth and "vulgar" internet celebrities.
坚决杜绝“娘炮”等行为,抵制炒作炫富享乐、绯闻隐私、低俗“网红”、无底线审丑等泛娱乐化倾向。

【词汇讲解】

Effeminate这个词在英语词典中的解释是“not manly in appearance or manner”(外表或行为举止不够男性化),也就是上文所说的“娘炮”。由此我们可以举一反三,effeminate的近义词可以是unmanly,反义词是manly。此外,英语中还有一个更专业的词表示“男性的”,就是masculine,比如:a masculine voice(一个男性的声音),这个词强调的是“having qualities appropriate to or usually associated with a man”(通常与男性相关或与之匹配的特征),即“男性化的,有男子气概的”,这个词加上前缀un就可以变成它的反义词unmasculine,即“不够男性化的,没有男子气概的”,比如:unmasculine clothing(不够男性化的着装)。


Unhealthy fan culture should be deterred and strict controls placed on programs with voting segments, it said, and any that encourage fans to spend money on voting should be forbidden.
坚决抵制不良“饭圈”文化。选秀类节目要严格控制投票环节设置,严禁引导、鼓励粉丝变相花钱投票。

 

东京残奥会 Tokyo Paralympic Games

With the extinguishing of the flame in the caldron, the Tokyo Paralympic Games closed on Sunday night, with Team China winning 207 medals to top the tally.The Chinese athletes-40 percent of them first-time Paralympians-won 96 gold medals, 60 silvers and 51 bronzes.
9月5日晚,随着圣火熄灭,东京残奥会落下帷幕。中国代表团以96金60银51铜、共207枚奖牌的成绩名列奖牌榜榜首。中国代表团中有40%的运动员为首次参加残奥会。


Great Britain trailed in second place with 124 medals, followed by the United States and the Russian Paralympic Committee.
英国队以124枚奖牌位列第二,美国和俄罗斯紧随其后。


It was the fifth consecutive time that Team China dominated the Paralympics-it first topped the ranking in 2004 with 63 golds.
自2004年,中国队以63枚金牌位列奖牌榜第一名以来,这是中国代表团连续第五次登上残奥会奖牌榜榜首。

东京残奥会闭幕式的理念为“和谐之声(Harmonious Cacophony)”,约2000名运动员和官员、850位奥运官员及嘉宾,以及2250名媒体工作人员参加了闭幕式。轮椅女篮运动员张雪梅担任中国代表团闭幕式旗手。


国际残奥委会主席帕森斯在闭幕式致辞中称,

The Tokyo Paralympic Games have "not just been historic, they have been fantastic."
东京残奥会,不仅具有历史意义,而且非常精彩。


"In 12 magical days, athletes gave the world confidence, happiness and hope," the IPC chief added. "Athletes broke records. Athletes warmed hearts. Athletes opened minds. Athletes changed lives."
在这12个神奇的日子里,运动员们为世界带来了信心、幸福和希望。纪录被他们打破,每颗心因他们而温暖,眼界因他们而开阔,命运因他们而改变。


东京奥组委主席桥本圣子在致辞中表示:

She was "overwhelmed" by the astonishing performances of all Paralympians, adding "your impact as Paralympians have a message for all of us. You have inspired many of us to start our own new journeys. You have given us the insight and the power to look at ourselves and shape our own futures."
她被每一位残奥运动员的精彩表现所折服,“你们的行为给我们所有人传递了一种信息,激励很多人开启新的旅程。你们带给我们重新审视自己的洞见和力量,让我们可以重新规划自己的未来。”


"I am so glad we hosted the Olympic and Paralympic Games. I believe in the value they bring," said Hashimoto. "In 2024, athletes and sports lovers all over the world will be united again. We send the city of Paris our sincerest good wishes for a successful Paris 2024 Games. We will meet again soon."
“我很高兴我们举办了奥运会和残奥会。我相信这两个盛会带来的价值。2024年,运动员和体育爱好者们将重聚。我们衷心祝愿巴黎成功举办2024年奥运会。我们到时候再见。”

当天,中共中央、国务院向第16届残奥会中国体育代表团发了贺电。

贺电表示:

The Paralympians have demonstrated how they challenged their limits with determination and resilience, the letter said.
运动员们充分展示了新时代我国残疾人运动员挑战极限、锐意进取、顽强拼搏的精神风貌。


"Your brilliant performance has set an example for many Chinese with disabilities, added luster to the cause of sports for people with disabilities and won glory for the nation," it said.
你们的精彩表现为广大残疾人树立了榜样,为残奥事业增了彩,为祖国争了光。


The letter called them a national inspiration as China works to build itself into a "modern socialist country" by 2035, and it asked them to pass down the glory and make continuous efforts.
你们的优异成绩为全党全国各族人民在全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程上团结奋斗、凝心聚力注入了精神力量。希望你们继续发扬残疾人体育的光荣传统,再接再厉。


It also encouraged them to inspire China's disabled community to have more self-esteem, confidence, self-improvement and independence in the face of daily challenges, and to become more involved in social affairs and make their due contributions to rejuvenating the Chinese nation, the letter added.
鼓舞和激励广大残疾人自尊、自信、自强、自立,勇于面对挑战,更好融入社会,为实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦贡献更大力量。

 


政府指导价 government-guided pricing mechanism

国家发展改革委9月6日发布通知,明确要加强义务教育阶段学科类校外培训收费监管。

China is to adopt a government-guided pricing mechanism for curriculum-based off-campus tutoring courses for students at the stage of compulsory education, the notice said.
通知指出,我国将对义务教育阶段学科类校外培训收费实行政府指导价。

【知识点】

《关于进一步明确义务教育阶段校外培训学科类和非学科类范围的通知》明确,义务教育阶段校外培训学科类培训(curriculum-based off-campus tutoring courses)指根据国家义务教育阶段课程设置的规定,道德与法治、语文、历史、地理、数学、外语(英语、日语、俄语)、物理、化学、生物等学科的校外培训。

 

As institutions offering such services are categorized as non-profit organizations, the government will set the basic fee standards and floating range for both online and off-line classes.
义务教育阶段线上和线下学科类校外培训属于非营利性机构,由政府制定基准收费标准和浮动幅度。


通知要求,以平均培训成本(average cost of tutoring courses)为基础,统筹考虑当地经济发展水平(local economic development)、学生家庭承受能力(affordability for families)等因素,合理制定基准收费标准和浮动幅度。


The upward floating range set by local governments should be capped at 10 percent.
各地制定的浮动幅度,上浮不得超过10%。


要区分线上和线下以及不同班型,分类制定标准课程时长的基准收费标准。

Class sizes in tutoring institutions can be categorized in the following ways: class with less than 10 students, class with 10 to 35 students, and class with more than 35 students.
班型主要可分为10人以下、10至35人、35人以上三种类型。


The standard course period for online tutoring is 30 minutes, and 45 minutes for offline.
标准课程时长,线上为30分钟,线下为45分钟。

 

网络游戏企业平台 online game enterprises and platforms

Chinese authorities on Wednesday summoned leading online game enterprises and platforms, including Tencent and NetEase, for talks. These authorities include the Publicity Department of the Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee, the National Press and Publication Administration (NPPA), the Office of the Central Cyberspace Affairs Commission, and the Ministry of Culture and Tourism.
9月8日,中央宣传部、国家新闻出版署有关负责人会同中央网信办、文化和旅游部等部门,对腾讯、网易等重点网络游戏企业和平台进行约谈。

【词汇讲解】

“Summon someone for a talk/meeting”就是“约谈某人”的意思,summon本身的意思就是“to order someone to come to or be present at a particular place, or to officially arrange a meeting of people”(命令某人到某个地方,或者安排正式会面)。作为行政执法措施,“约谈”也可以用regulatory talk表示,指承担经济社会有关领域监督管理职责的行政执法机关(supervisory and administrative organs),针对出现的问题,在事先约定的时间、地点与作为当事人的公民、法人或者其他组织进行沟通交流,以警示、告诫(warning or admonishment)等方式,督促其遵纪守法(urge law-abidingness),引导当事人采取自愿的作为或者不作为,尽量避免违法问题发生或者扩大,维护公共利益(safeguard public interest)。

除此之外,summon还可以表示“(法庭)传唤”,比如,He was summoned to court for traffic violation./He received a court summon for traffic violation.Summon还可以表示“鼓起(勇气)、振作(精神)”的意思,常用的搭配是summon the courage to do something(鼓起勇气做某事),比如:It took him three months to summon the courage to tell her that he likes her.(他用了三个月才鼓起勇气向她表白。)


约谈强调,各网络游戏企业和平台要严格落实通知各项要求,

They were required to fully and faithfully impose the time limit on underage gamers and banned from providing online game account trading services for minors.
不折不扣执行向未成年人提供网络游戏的时段时长限制,不得以任何形式向未成年人提供网络游戏账号租售交易服务。


The authorities ordered the enterprises and platforms to tighten examination of the contents of their games. Obscene and violent content and those breeding unhealthy tendencies, such as money-worship and effeminacy, should be removed.
要加强网络游戏内容审核把关,严禁含有错误价值取向、淫秽色情、血腥恐怖等违法违规内容,坚决抵制拜金主义、“娘炮”等不良文化。


The platforms must also resist unfair competition to prevent excessive market concentration or even monopolies in the industry.
要自觉抵制不正当竞争,防止过度集中甚至垄断。


They were urged to break from the solitary focus of pursuing profit or viewership and other erroneous tendencies, and change game rules and designs inducing addictions.
要坚决遏制“唯金钱”“唯流量”等错误倾向,下决心改变诱导玩家沉迷的各类规则和玩法设计。


Restrictions were required on game advertisements involving celebrity endorsement.
要规范限制明星代言游戏广告。


The platforms were asked to place stricter management on the services of livestreaming games, including banning large rewards and rewards from minors.
要加强游戏直播管理,禁止出现高额打赏、未成年人打赏等情况。


【词汇讲解】

在关于“打赏”的英文报道中,我们经常看到的表述是tip和reward。Tip的用法很多,之所以会被用来表示“打赏”,是因为tip用作动词和名词的时候,有一个意思是“(pay) a small amount of money to someone who has provided you with a service, in addition to the official payment and for their personal use”(在正常支付账单之外,给为你提供服务的人员支付的一小笔额外费用,供其个人使用),即“(付)小费”,比如:He gave the porter a tip/He tipped the porter(他给行李员付了小费)。而reward通常指“something (as money) given or offered in return for a service, good behavior, excellent work, etc.”(对接受的服务、良好的表现或者出色的工作等行为做出的奖赏、回报),也可以直接用作动词来表示“奖赏(某人)”,比如:The company rewarded him for his years of service with a grand farewell party and several presents(公司用一个盛大的派对和很多礼物回馈他多年的工作付出);Salespeople who are willing to work longer hours will receive significant rewards(主动加班的销售员会拿到丰厚的回报)。

在看直播的过程中,用户打赏行为多是因为主播的表现好、内容吸引人等因素,而不是主播为用户提供了什么具体的服务,因此,这里的“打赏”用reward更合适。


中央宣传部、国家新闻出版署将会同有关部门和地方加大督查力度,开展专项检查,严肃处理违规行为;近期将上线防止未成年人沉迷网络游戏举报平台(a tipping platform will be launched to prevent online game addiction among minors),及时受理和处置问题线索,对落实不到位的企业,发现一起严处一起,确保防沉迷工作落到实处、取得实效。

 


杭州亚运会火炬形象 torch for the Hangzhou 2022 Asian Games

The torch for the Hangzhou 2022 Asian Games was named "Eternal Flame" and its design was inspired by the Liangzhu Culture, which was a testament to the 5000-year-old Chinese civilization.
杭州亚运会火炬名为“薪火”,其设计思想源自实证中华五千年文明史的良渚文化。

 

【知识点】

2019年7月,“良渚古城遗址”(Archaeological Ruins of Liangzhu City)成功列入《世界遗产名录》。以良渚古城为核心的良渚遗址是良渚文明的中心,遗存类型丰富,遗址格局完整,揭示了中华文明国家起源的基本特征,为中华五千多年文明史提供了最完整、最重要的考古学物证(the most concrete testimony of 5,000 years of Chinese civilization)。


The torch was shaped in a way that "grows" from bottom to top, with an overall height of 730 millimeters and a net weight of 1,200 grams.
火炬造型自下而上“生长”,整体高730毫米,净重1200克。


"Eternal Flame" means that the Chinese civilization was passed on from generation to generation. The torch was characterized by Jade Cong and threaded upon with Chinese heritage, natural sceneries and local customs. The design was intended to shine a more brilliant light on this sacred land of Chinese civilization.
“薪火”,寓意中华文明薪火相传。火炬以玉琮为表征,以人文历史和山川风物为主干,使中华文明圣地闪耀出更加璀璨的光芒。


从具体设计上来看,


The base of the torch was embossed with eight water veins symbolizing the evolution of civilization and representing the eight major river systems in Zhejiang.
炬基,以八条水脉为文明之脉,代表浙江八大水系。

【知识点】

浙江八大水系指的是钱塘江、瓯(ōu)江、椒江、甬(yǒng)江、苕(tiáo)溪、运河、飞云江、鳌江等八条主要河流。

 

The torch body was designed based on the evolution from dermatoglyphic fingerprint patterns specific to the Liangzhu Culture, which were naturally intertwined and exquisite.
炬身,以良渚螺旋纹为演化,形似指纹,自然交织,精致细密。


The torch head was characterized by the meaning of Jade Cong, one of the ritual jades, showing a harmonious square-round integration, and the burner nozzle was designed from the earliest oracle bone inscription of Jade Cong with the implied meaning of "light traveling in cycle inside".
炬冠,以玉琮语意为特征,方圆相融,昂然而立;出火口设计源自“琮”最早的甲骨文字形,寓意“光在内周而复始”。


The raw materials of the torch were digitally mapped to the blockchain, and the traceability mechanism was used to ensure authenticity. The grip of the torch was made of recycled raw materials, which was eco-friendly, light and easy to hold, and the fuel was heated with biomass gas, which was safe, clean and reliable.
火炬原材料通过区块链技术,利用可溯源机制确保真实性。握把采用可回收生物质材料,环保轻盈,便于手持;燃料采用生物质燃气,清洁安全可靠。

 

制造业增加值 added industrial value of the manufacturing sector

在9月13日召开的国新办新闻发布会上,工业和信息化部部长肖亚庆表示,助力我国全面建成小康社会,网络强国、制造强国两项国家战略做出了重要贡献。

The country's manufacturing sector has topped the world for 11 consecutive years since 2010, Xiao said, hailing that the country's position as a manufacturing country has further strengthened.
肖亚庆表示,自2010年以来,我国制造业已连续11年位居世界第一。制造业大国地位进一步巩固。


The added industrial value of the Chinese manufacturing sector grew from 16.98 trillion yuan in 2012 to 26.6 trillion yuan in 2020. The figure gives Chinese manufacturers a 30-percent-share of the global total-added industrial value.
2012年到2020年,我国制造业增加值由16.98万亿元增长到26.6万亿元,使中国制造业增加值占全球比重近30%。


China also boasts the world's most comprehensive industrial system with 41 major industrial categories. More than 40 percent of the outputs of Chinese-manufactured products rank the top of the world among 500 major industrial goods.
我国工业拥有41个大类,是世界上工业体系最为健全的国家。在500种主要工业品中,超过四成产品的产量位居世界第一。

 

未来5年推进制造强国、网络强国

肖亚庆表示:

China would speed up its new industrialization and informatization process. The country would develop into a "manufacturing powerhouse" and "network powerhouse" through five-year efforts.
我国将加速推进产业化和信息化进程,用五年的时间建成“制造强国”、“网络强国”。


工信部总工程师田玉龙介绍,

Notable breakthroughs would happen in the key sectors focusing on new-generation information technology, new energy, and high-end equipment.These sectors are closely related to the core industry competitiveness.
要在新一代信息技术、新能源以及高端设备等与产业核心竞争力密切相关的重要领域取得重大突破。


In traditional industries such as engineering, building materials, and chemical sectors, efforts would promote technology levels and build the industrial chain more solidly.
在机械工程、建筑材料以及化工等传统行业,将推动技术水平升级,使产业链更加稳固。


对于推动数字经济发展,肖亚庆介绍,

The number of 5G terminal connections in China now stands at above 400 million, ranking first worldwide. Its 5G base stations make up over 70 percent of the global total.
我国5G终端用户突破4亿,是全球最大的用户群体。5G基站全球占比超过70%。


Looking to the future, key technology breakthroughs in sectors such as high-end chips and basic software, and planning of front-tier technology such as quantum information and advanced computing, would strengthen.
未来,要加强高端芯片、基础软件等领域的关键技术攻关,加强量子信息以及高端计算等前言技术的方案规划。


Meanwhile, the construction of new forms of digital infrastructure and the cultivation of emerging industries such as artificial intelligence, big data, and cloud computing would move faster, said the minister.
与此同时,要加快建设新型数字基础设施,加快培育人工智能、大数据以及云计算等新兴行业。

 


国家助学贷款 national student loans

财政部、教育部、人民银行、银保监会联合印发《关于进一步完善国家助学贷款政策的通知》。

Undergraduate students can apply for a maximum of 12,000 yuan in loans per person each year starting from this fall semester, according to the notice. Postgraduate students can apply for up to 16,000 yuan each year, up from 12,000 yuan, the notice said.
通知明确,自今年秋季学期起,全日制普通本专科学生每人每年申请贷款额度提高至不超过1.2万元;全日制研究生则由不超过1.2万元提高至不超过1.6万元。

【知识点】

目前,国家已经建立了覆盖各教育阶段、各级各类学校、所有家庭经济困难学生的资助政策体系(a financial assistance system covering all students from disadvantaged backgrounds at all levels of education)。在高等教育阶段,国家奖学金(national scholarship)、国家励志奖学金(national endeavor scholarship)、国家助学金(national grant)、国家助学贷款(national student loans)、新生入学资助(tuition assistance for freshmen)、勤工助学(part-time jobs for students)、学费减免(tuition reduction or exemption)、补偿代偿、“绿色通道”等多种资助方式并举,确保高校家庭经济困难学生顺利入学并完成学业。


财政部部长助理欧文汉介绍,

国家助学贷款(national student loans)为信用贷款(credit loans),不需要抵押(mortgage)或担保(guarantee),大学生可自主选择贷款地点,既能在家门口办理生源地助学贷款,也可以到学校报到的时候办理校园地助学贷款。在校期间,学生的贷款利息全部由财政补贴(interest of student loans will be covered by subsidies during their school years)。


Students do not need to pay the principal or interest while they are still in college and can apply for a five-year grace period after graduation, during which they only pay the interest.
在校期间,学生无需还本金或利息,毕业后还可申请5年的还本宽限期,还本宽限期内只需还息无需还本。

 

财政部科教和文化司司长黄家玉表示,


政策规定的国家助学贷款额度是指每个学生每年最多可以贷到的钱(the maximum amount of student loans),是一个限额,不是固定的数额。


Within this limit, loan applicants can decide their borrowing amount based on the amount of money they need for tuition and accomodation, and financial situation of their family.
学生可以根据自己每年需要缴纳的学费、住宿费及家庭经济状况等因素,在额度范围内自主确定。


财政部部长助理欧文汉介绍,

Different forms of financial aid to college students totaled 124.4 billion yuan last year, benefiting 36.78 million students.
2020年,全国各项高等教育学生资助政策共资助学生3678万人次,资助资金1244亿元。

 


南向通 Southbound trading

为促进内地与香港债券市场共同发展,中国人民银行、香港金融管理局9月15日发布联合公告,

Southbound trading under the Bond Connect program between the Chinese mainland and Hong Kong will be launched on Sept 24.
内地与香港债券市场互联互通(债券通)南向合作(简称“南向通”)将于2021年9月24日上线。

【知识点】

“债券通”(Bond Connect)是指境内外投资者通过香港与内地债券市场基础设施机构连接,买卖两个市场交易流通债券的机制安排。

2017年7月,中国人民银行会同香港金融管理局,与各方共同努力推出了“北向通”。“北向通”(northbound trading),即香港及其他国家与地区的境外投资者经由香港与内地基础设施机构之间在交易、托管、结算等方面互联互通的机制安排,投资于内地银行间债券市场(allowing Hong Kong and other overseas investors to invest in the China Interbank Bond Market through mutual access between the financial infrastructure institutions in Hong Kong and the mainland with regard to trading, custody, and settlement)。

即将开通的“南向通”(southbound trading),即境内投资者经由两地基础设施机构之间的互联互通机制安排,投资于香港债券市场(allowing mainland investors to invest in Hong Kong's bond market through mutual access between the financial infrastructure institutions of the two places)。


不久,符合中国人民银行要求的境内投资者就可以通过“南向通”,投资在境外发行、并在香港市场交易流通的债券(bonds issued offshore and tradable in the Hong Kong bond market)。

In the initial stage of the program, eligible investors will include a selected number of primary dealers for open market operations in the mainland as approved by the central bank, qualified domestic institutional investors and RMB qualified domestic institutional investors.
初期阶段,“南向通”的内地投资者暂定为中国人民银行批准的公开市场业务一级交易商中的一些选定机构。另外,合格境内机构投资者(QDII)和人民币合格境内机构投资者(RQDII)也可以通过“南向通”开展境外债券投资。


Investors will be subject to an annual quota of 500 billion yuan and a daily quota of 20 billion yuan.
“南向通”年度总额度为5000亿元等值人民币,每日额度为200亿元等值人民币。

 

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